2,479 research outputs found

    Space resources. Volume 1: Scenarios

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    A number of possible future paths for space exploration and development are presented. The topics covered include the following: (1) the baseline program; (2) alternative scenarios utilizing nonterrestrial resources; (3) impacts of sociopolitical conditions; (4) common technologies; and issues for further study

    Space resources. Overview

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    Space resources must be used to support life on the Moon and in the exploration of Mars. Just as the pioneers applied the tools they brought with them to resources they found along the way rather than trying to haul all their needs over a long supply line, so too must space travelers apply their high technology tools to local resources. This overview describes the findings of a study on the use of space resources in the development of future space activities and defines the necessary research and development that must precede the practical utilization of these resources. Space resources considered included lunar soil, oxygen derived from lunar soil, material retrieved from near-Earth asteroids, abundant sunlight, low gravity, and high vacuum. The study participants analyzed the direct use of these resources, the potential demand for products from them, the techniques for retrieving and processing space resources, the necessary infrastructure, and the economic tradeoffs

    Space resources. Volume 2: Energy, power, and transport

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    This volume of the Space Resources report covers a number of technical and policy issues concerning the energy and power to carry out advanced space missions and the means of transportation to get to the sites of those missions. Discussed in the first half of this volume are the technologies which might be used to provide power and a variety of ways to convert power from one form to another, store it, move it wherever it is needed, and use it. In the second half of this volume, various kinds of transportation, including both interplanetary and surface systems, are discussed

    Space resources. Volume 4: Social concerns

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    Space resources must be used to support life on the Moon and exploration of Mars. This volume, Social Concerns, covers some of the most important issues which must be addressed in any major program for the human exploration of space. The volume begins with a consideration of the economics and management of large scale space activities. Then the legal aspects of these activities are discussed, particularly the interpretation of treaty law with respect to the Moon and asteroids. The social and cultural issues of moving people into space are considered in detail, and the eventual emergence of a space culture different from the existing culture is envisioned. The environmental issues raised by the development of space settlements are faced. Some innovative approaches are proposed to space communities and habitats and self-sufficiency is considered along with human safety at a lunar base or outpost

    The origin of amorphous rims on lunar plagioclase grains: Solar wind damage or vapor condensates

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    A distinctive feature of micron sized plagioclase grains from mature lunar soils is a thin (20 to 100 nm) amorphous rim surrounding the grains. These rims were originally described from high voltage electron microscope observations of lunar plagioclase grains by Dran et al., who observed rims up to 100 nm thick on plagioclase grains from Apollo 11 and 12 soils. These rims are believed to be the product of solar wind damage. The amorphous rims were studied on micron sized plagioclase grains from a mature Apollo 16 soil using a JEOL 200FX transmission electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive x ray spectrometer. It was found that the amorphous rims are compositionally distinct from the interior plagioclase and it is proposed that a major component of vapor condensates is present in the rims

    Using space resources

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    The topics covered include the following: reducing the cost of space exploration; the high cost of shipping; lunar raw materials; some useful space products; energy from the moon; ceramic, glass, and concrete construction materials; mars atmosphere resources; relationship to the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI); an evolutionary approach to using space resources; technology development; and oxygen and metal coproduction

    Towards a complete inventory of stratospheric dust particles, with implications for their classification

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    Several investigators have recently proposed classification schemes for stratospheric dust particles [1-3]. In addition, extraterrestrial materials within stratospheric dust collections may be used as a measure of micrometeorite flux [4]. However, little attention has been given to the problems of the stratospheric collection as a whole. Some of these problems include: (a) determination of accurate particle abundances at a given point in time; (b) the extent of bias in the particle selection process; (c) the variation of particle shape and chemistry with size; (d) the efficacy of proposed classification schemes and (e) an accurate determination of physical parameters associated with the particle collection process (e.g. minimum particle size collected, collection efficiency, variation of particle density with time). We present here preliminary results from SEM, EDS and, where appropriate, XRD analysis of all of the particles from a collection surface which sampled the stratosphere between 18 and 20km in altitude. Determinations of particle densities from this study may then be used to refine models of the behavior of particles in the stratosphere [5]

    A new classification and database for stratospheric dust particles

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    With the increasing number of stratospheric particles available for study (via the U2 and/or WB57F collections), it is essential that a simple, yet rational, classification scheme be developed for general use. Such a scheme should be applicable to all particles collected from the stratosphere, rather than limited to only extraterrestial or chemical sub-groups. Criteria for the efficacy of such a scheme would include: (a) objectivity , (b) ease of use, (c) acceptance within the broader scientific community and (d) how well the classification provides intrinsic categories which are consistent with our knowledge of particle types present in the stratosphere

    Science and In Situ Resources Utilization (ISRU): Design reference mission for the First Lunar Outpost

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    Information is given in viewgraph form on the science and in situ resources utilization (ISRU) for the design reference mission for the First Lunar Outpost (FLO). Topics covered include requirements and themes, the general approach, science payloads, trade studies, science evolution, and present and future activities
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