82 research outputs found

    Corpus Linguistics and 17th-Century Prostitution

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    Corpus linguistics has much to offer history, being as both disciplines engage so heavily in analysis of large amounts of textual material. This book demonstrates the opportunities for exploring corpus linguistics as a method in historiography and the humanities and social sciences more generally. Focusing on the topic of prostitution in 17th-century England, it shows how corpus methods can assist in social research, and can be used to deepen our understanding and comprehension. McEnery and Baker draw principally on two sources ‚Äď the newsbook Mercurius Fumigosis and the Early English Books Online Corpus. This scholarship on prostitution and the sex trade offers insight into the social position of women in history

    Register, Belief and Violence:A multi-dimensional approach

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    Language Surrounding Poverty in Early Modern England:A corpus-based investigation of how people living in the seventeenth century perceived the criminalized poor

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    A study exploring attitudes to the criminalised poor using a billion words of data from early-modern England

    The Value of Revisiting and Extending Previous Studies:The Case of Islam in the UK Press

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    In this chapter, the authors introduce corpus-assisted discourse studies (CADS), a means of using the methods of corpus linguistics to facilitate discourse analysis of large volumes of textual data. The chapter uses this framework not only to demonstrate the value of CADS but also to explore the importance of repeating studies over time to test the degree to which discourse is static, or changes, through time. By extending a study of the representation of Muslims and Islam in the UK press, the chapter shows the value of exploring the dynamic nature of discourse as a way of cautioning against the idea that discourse is necessarily stable across time

    Identifying and describing functional discourse units in the BNC Spoken 2014

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    On the surface, it appears that conversational language is produced in a stream of spoken utterances. In reality conversation is composed of contiguous units that are characterized by coherent communicative purposes. A large number of important research questions about the nature of conversational discourse could be addressed if researchers could investigate linguistic variation across functional discourse units. To date, however, no corpus of conversational language has been annotated according to functional units, and there are no existing methods for carrying out this type of annotation. We introduce a new method for segmenting transcribed conversation files into discourse units and characterizing those units based on their communicative purposes. The development and piloting of this method is described in detail and the final framework is presented. We conclude with a discussion of an ongoing project where we are applying this coding framework to the British National Corpus Spoken 2014

    Designing and compiling parallel aligned corpora: pitfalls and (some) solutions on the example of a corpus of translated musem texts (English-Spanish)

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    [EN] Text corpora are tools having both a long tradition in research and a variety of applications. Of all existing types, this paper focuses specifically on parallel, aligned corpora. By taking one of this corpora as a starting point‚ÄĒa parallel, aligned corpus from museum texts originally written in English and subsequently translated into Spanish‚ÄĒ, the aim of this article is to propose a methodology that consists of four basic stages. By the revision of previous literature on the topic, and by using multiple software programs‚ÄĒproprietary and free, specifically created for corpus compilation and created for other purposes‚ÄĒ, it is concluded that, although the compilation of corpora such as the one that was intended is a feasible task, the procedure is full of obstacles. Some obstacles were overcome, while some were not; that is the case, for example, of the repetitions on the aligned corpus, which are not present in the corpus.[ES] Los corpus de textos son herramientas de larga tradici√≥n y numerosas aplicaciones. De todos los tipos existentes, este trabajo se centra en uno en concreto: el corpus paralelo alineado. Tomando como punto de partida un corpus paralelo alineado de textos muse√≠sticos escritos originariamente en ingl√©s y traducidos al espa√Īol, se propone una metodolog√≠a que pasa por cuatro fases esenciales. Con el apoyo de trabajos previos al respecto, y tras el recurso a programas de software ‚ÄĒde pago y gratuitos, espec√≠ficos y creados con otros fines‚ÄĒ, se comprueba que, si bien es posible llevar a cabo la compilaci√≥n del corpus, el camino est√° lleno de obst√°culos, algunos salvables y otros no, como ha sucedido con la conservaci√≥n de repeticiones en el corpus alineado.Leiva Rojo, J. (2018). Dise√Īo y compilaci√≥n de corpus paralelos alineados: dificultades y (algunas) soluciones en el ejemplo de un corpus de textos muse√≠sticos traducidos (ingl√©s-espa√Īol). Revista de Ling√ľ√≠stica y Lenguas Aplicadas. 13:59-73. doi:10.4995/rlyla.2018.7912SWORD597313ABBYY Software (2011). ABBYY Aligner 2.0 (versi√≥n 1.0.6.59) [Software]. Milpitas: ABBYY Software.√Ālvarez Lugr√≠s, A. G√≥mez Guinovart, X. (2015). "Lexicograf√≠a biling√ľe pr√°ctica basada en corpus: planificaci√≥n y elaboraci√≥n del Diccionario Moderno Ingl√©s-Galego" en M.J. Dom√≠nguez V√°zquez, X. G√≥mez Guinovart y C. Valc√°rcerl Riveiro (eds.). Lexicograf√≠a de las lenguas rom√°nicas. II: Aproximaciones a la lexicograf√≠a moderna y contrastiva. Berl√≠n: De Gruyter, 31-47.Anthony, L (2016). AntConc (versi√≥n 3.4.4.) [Software]. Tokyo: Waseda University. http://www.laurenceanthony.net/.Anthony, L. (2013). "A critical look at software tools in corpus linguistics". Linguistic Research 30/2: 141-161.ApSIC (2011). Xbench (versi√≥n 2.9.474) [Software]. Barcelona: ApSIC.Arbach, N. y Ali, S. (2013). "Aspects th√©oriques et m√©thodologiques de la repr√©sentativit√© des corpus". Corela 13: 1-16. doi: 10.4000/corela.3029.Arg√ľelles √Ālvarez, I. y Mu-oz Mu-oz, A. (2012). "An insight into Twitter: a corpus based contrastive study in English and Spanish". Revista de Ling√ľ√≠stica y Lenguas Aplicadas 7/1: 37-50. doi: https://doi.org/10.4995/rlyla.2012.1123.Baker, M. (1995). "Corpora in Translation Studies: An overview and some suggestions for future research". Target 7/2: 223-243. doi: https://doi.org/10.1075/target.7.2.03bak.Biber, D. (1993). "Representativeness in corpus design". Literary and Linguistic Computing 8/4: 243 257. doi: 10.1093/llc/8.4.243.Bowker, L. y Pearson, J. (2002). Working with specialized language. A practical guide to using corpora. Londres: Routledge.Buj√°n Otero, P. (2015). A traduci√≥n da fraseolox√≠a no x√©nero textual MANUAL DE INSTRUCI√ďNS na combinaci√≥n ling√ľ√≠stica alem√°n-espa-ol (tesis doctoral). Vigo: Universidad.EAGLES (1996). Preliminary recommendations on Corpus Typology (EAGLES Document EAG-TCWG-CTYP). Pisa: Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche.Fantinuoli, C. y Zanettin, F. (2015). "Creating and using multilingual corpora in translation studies" en C. Fantinuoli y F. Zanettin (eds.). New directions in corpus-based translation studies Berlin: Language Science Press, 1-10.Faya Ornia, G. (2015). "Propuesta de clasificaci√≥n de corpus textuales" en M.T. S√°nchez Nieto et al. (eds.). Metodolog√≠as y aplicaciones en la investigaci√≥n en traducci√≥n e interpretaci√≥n con corpus. Valladolid: Universidad, 339-356.Frankenberg-Garcia, A. (2009). "Compiling and using a parallel corpus for research in translation". International Journal of Translation 21/1-2: 57-71.Ginezi, L. (2014). "Desafios para a constru√ß√£o de um corpus de aprendizes de Interpreta√ß√£o Simult√Ęnea". TradTerm 23: 165-191. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.11606/issn.2317-9511.tradterm.2014.85576.Granger, S. (2010). "Comparable and translation corpora in cross-linguistic research: Design, analysis and applications". Journal of Shanghai Jiaotong University 2: 14-21.Guillot, M.-N. (2014). "Cross-cultural pragmatics and translation: The case of museum texts as interlingual representation" En J. House (ed.). Translation: A multidisciplinary approach. Hampshire: Palgrave, 73-95. doi: 10.1057/9781137025487_5.Harris, B. (1988). "Bi-text, a new concept in translation theory". Language Monthly 54/marzo: 8-10.Hui-Chuan, L. y Hsueh, L. (2012). "Estudio del uso del art√≠culo a partir de un corpus paralelo de aprendices, CPATEI". Revista de Ling√ľ√≠stica y Lenguas Aplicadas 7/1: 193-202. doi: https://doi.org/10.4995/rlyla.2012.1135.Huston, S. (2002). Corpora in applied linguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Isabelle, P. (1992). "La bi-textualit√©: vers une nouvelle generation d'aides √† la traduction et la terminologie". Meta 37/4: 721‚Äď737. doi: 10.7202/003228ar.Jiang, C. (2010). "Quality assessment for the translation of museum texts: Application of a systemic functional model". Perspectives 18/2: 109 126. doi: 10.1080/09076761003678734.Kay, M. (2000). "Preface" en J. V√©ronis (ed.). Parallel text processing: Alignment and use of translation corpora. Dordrecht: Kluwer, XV-XX.Kilgarriff, A., et al. (2014). "The Sketch Engine: ten years on". Lexicography 1/1: 7-36. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40607-014-0009-9.Kraif, O. (2002). "Translation alignment and lexical correspondences: A methodological reflection" en B. Altenberg y S. Granger (eds.). Lexis in contrast: Corpus-based approaches. √Āmsterdam: John Benjamins: 271-289.Lahaussois, A. and S√©verine, G. (2012). "A viewing and processing tool for the analysis of a comparable corpus of Kiranti mythology" en R. Rapp et al. (eds.). Proceedings of LREC2012. Estambul: European Language Resources Association: 33-41.Leech, G. (2007). "New resources or just better old ones?" en M. Hundt, N. Nesselhauf y C. Biewer (eds.). Corpus linguistics and the web. √Āmsterdam: Rodopi, 134-149.Llisterri, J. (2016). "Corpus linguistics and written language resources ‚ÄĒ Bibliography". http://liceu.uab.es/~joaquim/language_resources/lang_res/biblio_corpus.html#General_references_on_corpus_linguistics.Mart√≠nez Belch√≠, E. (2015). "Recursos en l√≠nea sobre corpus y su utilidad para la traducci√≥n de unidades fraseol√≥gicas" en G. Conde Tarr√≠o et al. (eds.). Enfoques actuales para la traducci√≥n fraseol√≥gica y paremiol√≥gica. Madrid: Centro Virtual Cervantes, 85-96.McEnery, T. y Hardie, A. (2012) Corpus linguistics: Method, theory and practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.McEnery, T. y Wilson, A. (2001). Corpus linguistics: An introduction (2.¬™ ed.). Edimburgo: Edinburg University Press.Mol√©s-Cases, T. (2016). "Compilaci√≥n y an√°lisis de un corpus paralelo para la investigaci√≥n en traducci√≥n. Proyecto con D√©j√† Vu, TreeTagger e IMS open corpus Workbench". Revista de Ling√ľ√≠stica Te√≥rica y Aplicada 54/1: 149-174. doi: 10.4067/S0718-48832016000100008.N√°dvorn√≠kov√°, O. (2017). "Pi√®ges m√©thodologiques des corpus parall√®les et comment les √©viter". Corela 21:1-28.Neather, R. (2008). "Translating tea: On the semiotics of interlingual practice in the Hong Kong Museum of Tea Ware". Meta 53/1: 218-240. doi: 10.7202/017984ar.Neather, R. (2012). "Intertextuality, translation, and the semiotics of museum presentation: The case of bilingual texts in Chinese museums". Semiotica 192: 197-218. doi: 10.1515/sem-2012-0082.Parodi, G. (2008). "Ling√ľ√≠stica de corpus: Una introducci√≥n al √°mbito". Revista de Ling√ľ√≠stica Te√≥rica y Aplicada 46/1: 93-119. doi: 10.4067/S0718-48832008000100006.Rioja, M. (2010). "English-Spanish translations of narrative texts under Franco. Findings from corpus TRACEni (1962-1969)". Revista de Ling√ľ√≠stica y Lenguas Aplicadas 5/1: 177-194. doi: https://doi.org/10.4995/rlyla.2010.768.Rojo, G. (2008). "Ling√ľ√≠stica de corpus y ling√ľ√≠stica del espa-ol" en Actas del XV Congreso de la ALFAL. Montevideo: ALFAL, 31 p√°gs.Rojo, G. (2015). "Hispanic corpus linguistics" en M. Lacorte (ed.). The Routledge handbook of hispanic applied linguistics. Nueva York: Routledge, 371-387.S√°nchez Ramos, M. (2017). "Metodolog√≠a de corpus y formaci√≥n en la traducci√≥n especializada (ingl√©s-espa-ol): una propuesta para la mejora de la adquisici√≥n de vocabulario especializado". Revista de Ling√ľ√≠stica y Lenguas Aplicadas 12/1: 137 150. doi: https://doi.org/10.4995/rlyla.2017.6969.Scheer, T. (2013). "The corpus: A tool among others". Corela 13: 1-14. doi: 10.4000/corela.3006.SDL Group (2013). SDL Trados Studio 2014 [software]. Maidenhead: SDL Group.SDL Group (2016). SDL Trados Studio 2017 [software]. Maidenhead: SDL Group.Seghiri, M. (2011). "Metodolog√≠a protocolizada de compilaci√≥n de un corpus de seguros de viajes: aspectos de dise-o y representatividad". Revista de Ling√ľ√≠stica Te√≥rica y Aplicada 49/2: 13-30. doi: 10.4067/S0718-48832011000200002.Ser√≥n Ord√≥-ez, I. (2015). "C√≥mo crear y analizar corpus paralelos. Un procedimiento con software accessible y econ√≥mico y algunas sugerencias para software futuro" en M.T. S√°nchez Nieto (ed.). Corpus-based translation and interpreting studies. Berl√≠n: Frank & Timme, 167-190.Sharoff, S. (2002). "Meaning as use: exploitation of aligned corpora for the contrastive study of lexical semantics" en Proceedings of LREC02. Las Palmas de Gran Canaria: European Language Resources Association, 447-452.Sinclair, J. (1991). Corpus, concordance, collocation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Valde√≥n, R.A. (2015). "Colonial museums in the US (un)translated". Language and Intercultural Communication 15/3: 362-375. doi: 10.1080/14708477.2015.1015351.Vaughan, E. y Clancy, B. (2013). "Small corpora and pragmatics" en J. Romero-Trillo (ed.). Yearbook of Corpus Linguistics and Pragmatics 2013: New Domains and Methodologies. Springer: Dordrecht, 53-73. doi: 10.1007/978-94-007-6250-3_4.V√©ronis, J. (2000a). "Foreword" en J. V√©ronis (ed.). Parallel text processing: Alignment and use of translation corpora. Dordrecht: Kluwer, XI-XII.V√©ronis, J. (2000b). "From the Rosetta stone to the information society: A survey of parallel text processing" en J. V√©ronis (ed.). Parallel text processing: Alignment and use of translation corpora. Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1-24.Wright, C.V. (2016). Blue Guide New York (5.¬™ ed.). Londres: Somerset.Zanettin, F. (2012). Translation-driven corpora. M√°nchester; St. Jerome.Zanettin, F. (2013). 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    Fermi Large Area Telescope Constraints on the Gamma-ray Opacity of the Universe

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    The Extragalactic Background Light (EBL) includes photons with wavelengths from ultraviolet to infrared, which are effective at attenuating gamma rays with energy above ~10 GeV during propagation from sources at cosmological distances. This results in a redshift- and energy-dependent attenuation of the gamma-ray flux of extragalactic sources such as blazars and Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs). The Large Area Telescope onboard Fermi detects a sample of gamma-ray blazars with redshift up to z~3, and GRBs with redshift up to z~4.3. Using photons above 10 GeV collected by Fermi over more than one year of observations for these sources, we investigate the effect of gamma-ray flux attenuation by the EBL. We place upper limits on the gamma-ray opacity of the Universe at various energies and redshifts, and compare this with predictions from well-known EBL models. We find that an EBL intensity in the optical-ultraviolet wavelengths as great as predicted by the "baseline" model of Stecker et al. (2006) can be ruled out with high confidence.Comment: 42 pages, 12 figures, accepted version (24 Aug.2010) for publication in ApJ; Contact authors: A. Bouvier, A. Chen, S. Raino, S. Razzaque, A. Reimer, L.C. Reye
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