37 research outputs found

    Development and integration of animal-based welfare indicators, including pain, in goat farms in Portugal

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    Tese de Doutoramento em Ci√™ncias Veterin√°rias, especialidade de Cl√≠nicaThe development of species-specific protocols for on-farm welfare assessment represents a major concern for the European Union agricultural policy. Proper welfare assessment demands for the use of valid, reliable and feasible animal-based welfare indicators. The literature and policy-makers recognise the need for advancing knowledge in this area. This thesis aims at developing and integrating animal-based indicators in on-farm welfare assessment protocols, focusing on dairy goat farms. Specifically, this thesis contributes to literature in three areas. First, it contributes to the identification of animal-based welfare indicators that should be included in welfare assessment protocols. We conducted a literature review that allowed for the recognition of the need for future research in the indicators‚Äô psychometric properties, such as reliability and feasibility. Secondly, this thesis develops tools to assist the measurement of body condition and lameness. For body condition, we developed a visual body condition scoring system (BSC). Our approach requires minimum animal handling without compromising a valid and reliable individual assessment of the goats. With respect to lameness we developed a websurvey that allowed us to collect observer‚Äôs ratings of goats lameness condition. Our survey showed that observers were only able to consistently assess severely lame goats, a finding which is important towards the integration of the indicator in assessment protocols. The observers‚Äô ratings also showed that the numerical rating scales should only be used considering their ordinal level of measurement. This directs research towards the development of scoring systems with higher levels of measurement, like the modified visual analogue scales. Third, this thesis contributed to the development of a welfare assessment protocol that integrated and tested the two studied indicators (BCS and lameness). Such protocol was implemented in 30 Portuguese farms and provided insights into the main welfare problems affecting intensively kept dairy goats in our country (claw overgrowth, queuing at feeding, very fat animals), which is paramount to improve dairy goats‚Äô welfare. Research conducted for this thesis has practical implications for both welfare assessment research and to the goat industry in general. Ultimately, through the development of adequate assessment tools, it integrates the welfare issue into the food chain, meeting the consumers‚Äô expectations in the development of a sustainable food production system.RESUMO - Desenvolvimento e integra√ß√£o de indicadores de bem-estar animal, incluindo dor, em explora√ß√Ķes de cabras em Portugal - A elabora√ß√£o de protocolos de avalia√ß√£o de bem-estar espec√≠ficos para cada esp√©cie pecu√°ria √© uma preocupa√ß√£o da pol√≠tica agr√≠cola europeia. A literatura da √°rea de bem-estar animal identifica a cria√ß√£o de instrumentos de medi√ß√£o como o primeiro passo para a elabora√ß√£o destes protocolos. Esta tese tem como objetivo desenvolver e integrar indicadores para incluir em protocolos de avalia√ß√£o para utilizar em explora√ß√Ķes de cabras de aptid√£o leiteira. Esta tese apresenta tr√™s contributos para a literatura de bem-estar animal. Em primeiro lugar, contribui para a identifica√ß√£o de indicadores, baseados nos animais, com potencial para integra√ß√£o em protocolos de avalia√ß√£o. A revis√£o bibliogr√°fica realizada permitiu reconhecer a necessidade premente de investiga√ß√£o nesta √°rea, dado que a maior parte dos indicadores necessitam de ser testados e validados. Em segundo lugar, esta tese desenvolve ferramentas para apoiar a avalia√ß√£o da condi√ß√£o corporal e da claudica√ß√£o. Para a condi√ß√£o corporal foi criado um sistema visual de avalia√ß√£o considerado v√°lido e repet√≠vel, e que apenas necessita de uma breve conten√ß√£o dos animais para ser utilizado. Relativamente √† claudica√ß√£o foram recolhidas participa√ß√Ķes de observadores relativamente √† observa√ß√£o de v√≠deos de cabras com diferentes n√≠veis de claudica√ß√£o. A an√°lise destas observa√ß√Ķes permitiu concluir que os participantes apenas s√£o consistentes a avaliar os casos mais graves de claudica√ß√£o, facto importante para a integra√ß√£o do indicador em protocolos de avalia√ß√£o. As classifica√ß√Ķes dos observadores mostraram ainda que as escalas num√©ricas em uso apenas podem ser utilizadas considerando um n√≠vel ordinal de medi√ß√£o. Este facto abre o caminho para o desenvolvimento de escalas com n√≠veis mais elevados de medi√ß√£o, como as escalas visuais anal√≥gicas modificadas. Em terceiro lugar, esta tese desenvolve um protocolo de avalia√ß√£o que inclui e testa os indicadores condi√ß√£o corporal e claudica√ß√£o. Este protocolo permitiu investigar sobre os maiores problemas de bem-estar que afetam as explora√ß√Ķes intensivas de leite de cabra em Portugal (sobre crescimento das unhas, filas na manjedoura, animais gordos), sendo esta informa√ß√£o fundamental para analisar como melhorar o bem-estar das cabras de leite. A investiga√ß√£o conduzida no √Ęmbito desta tese apresenta implica√ß√Ķes pr√°ticas tanto para o estudo do bem-estar animal, como para a explora√ß√£o de leite de cabra. O desenvolvimento de ferramentas adequadas de avalia√ß√£o permite a integra√ß√£o da valora√ß√£o do bem-estar na cadeia de produ√ß√£o, indo ao encontro das expectativas dos consumidores para a concep√ß√£o de sistemas mais sustent√°veis de produ√ß√£o de alimentos

    O papel do enfermeiro de reabilita√ß√£o no processo de transi√ß√£o sa√ļde-doen√ßa

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    O presente relat√≥rio foi elaborado em contexto do Est√°gio Final, do 2¬ļ ano do VI Mestrado em Enfermagem em Associa√ß√£o, na √°rea de especializa√ß√£o de Enfermagem em Reabilita√ß√£o. Os ensinos cl√≠nicos t√™m como objetivo principal a aquisi√ß√£o de compet√™ncias de mestre e de Enfermeiro Especialista em Enfermagem de Reabilita√ß√£o. Tendo como foco o processo de transi√ß√£o sa√ļde-doen√ßa, foi aplicado um plano de interven√ß√Ķes com o objetivo de capacitar os v√°rios intervenientes no processo de reabilita√ß√£o. Esse plano divide-se em tr√™s grupos: cuidador informal, enfermeiro generalista e a pessoa com altera√ß√£o da funcionalidade. A capacita√ß√£o do cuidador informal foi realizada por contato telef√≥nico seguindo a estrutura da entrevista. A capacita√ß√£o do enfermeiro generalista foi realizada atrav√©s de forma√ß√£o em servi√ßo. A capacita√ß√£o da pessoa foi realizada atrav√©s da presta√ß√£o direta de cuidados de Enfermagem de Reabilita√ß√£o. A reflex√£o sobre as atividades desenvolvidas permitiu concluir que o Enfermeiro de Reabilita√ß√£o cumpre um papel fulcral no processo de transi√ß√£o sa√ļde-doen√ßa, uma vez que tem compet√™ncias acrescidas para ser facilitador nesse processo, para todos os intervenientes.This report was elaborated in the context of the Final Internship, in the second year of the VI master‚Äôs degree in nursing in Association, in the specialization area of Rehabilitation Nursing. Clinical teachings have the main objective of acquiring master's and Specialist Nurse in Rehabilitation Nursing competencies. Focusing on the health-disease transition process, an intervention plan was applied to empower the various stakeholders in the rehabilitation process. This plan was divided into three groups: informal caregiver, generalist nurse, and the person with functional impairment. The informal caregiver's empowerment was conducted by telephone contact following the interview structure. The generalist nurse's empowerment was conducted through on-the-job training. The person's empowerment was conducted through direct provision of Rehabilitation Nursing care. Reflection on the activities developed allowed us to conclude that the Rehabilitation Nurse plays a crucial role in the health-disease transition process, as they have enhanced competencies to be a facilitator in this process, for all stakeholders

    Real f√°brica de vidros de Coina ‚Äď Chemical analysis of archaeological glass fragments

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    Actas do 17¬ļ Congresso da Associa√ß√£o Internacional para a Hist√≥ria do Vidr

    Microbiological and chemical quality of portuguese lettuce - results of a case study

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    In addition to environmental pollution issues, social concerns about the sustainability, safety, and quality of conventionally grown fruits and vegetables have been increasing. In order to evaluate if there were any microbiological differences between samples of organic and conventional lettuce, a wide range of parameters were tested, including pathogens and indicator organisms: the enumeration of Escherichia coli; the detection of Salmonella spp.; the detection/enumeration of Listeria monocytogenes; the enumeration of lactic acid bacteria, Pseudomonas spp. yeasts and molds, and Enterobacteriaceae. This study also evaluated the chemical safety of the lettuce samples, quantifying the nitrate concentration and 20 pesticides (14 organochlorine and 6 organophosphorus pesticides). Significant differences (p<0.05) between the conventional and organic samples were only detected for the counts of total microorganisms at 30‚ó¶C. Pathogens were absent in all the samples. The analytical method, using the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) approach for pesticide extraction, was suitable for detecting the targeted analyte s; the limit of quantification(LOQ) was between 0.6 and 1.8őľg/kg (lower than the Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs) established by EU legislation). In three organic lettuce samples, one organochlorine pesticide (őĪ-HCH) was observed below the MRLs. For the samples analyzed and for the parameters investigated, except for the total mesophilic counts, the organic and conventional lettuces were not different.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Green spaces are not all the same for the provision of air purification and climate regulationservices: the case of urban parks

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    The growing human population concentrated in urban areas lead to the increase of road traffic and artificial areas, consequently enhancing air pollution and urban heat island effects, among others. These environmental changes affect citizen's health, causing a high number of premature deaths, with considerable social and economic costs. Nature-based solutions are essential to ameliorate those impacts in urban areas. While the mere presence of urban green spaces is pointed as an overarching solution, the relative importance of specific vegetation structure, composition and management to improve the ecosystem services of air purification and climate regulation are overlooked. This avoids the establishment of optimized planning and management procedures for urban green spaces with high spatial resolution and detail. Our aim was to understand the relative contribution of vegetation structure, composition and management for the provision of ecosystem services of air purification and climate regulation in urban green spaces, in particular the case of urban parks. This work was done in a large urban park with different types of vegetation surrounded by urban areas. As indicators of microclimatic effects and of air pollution levels we selected different metrics: lichen diversity and pollutants accumulation in lichens. Among lichen diversity, functional traits related to nutrient and water requirements were used as surrogates of the capacity of vegetation to filter air pollution and to regulate climate, and provide air purification and climate regulation ecosystem services, respectively. This was also obtained with very high spatial resolution which allows detailed spatial planning for optimization of ecosystem services. We found that vegetation type characterized by a more complex structure (trees, shrubs and herbaceous layers) and by the absence of management (pruning, irrigation and fertilization) had a higher capacity to provide the ecosystems services of air purification and climate regulation. By contrast, lawns, which have a less complex structure and are highly managed, were associated to a lower capacity to provide these services. Tree plantations showed an intermediate effect between the other two types of vegetation. Thus, vegetation structure, composition and management are important to optimize green spaces capacity to purify air and regulate climate. Taking this into account green spaces can be managed at high spatial resolutions to optimize these ecosystem services in urban areas and contribute to improve human well-beinginfo:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Cofilin-1 is a mechanosensitive regulator of transcription

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    The mechanical properties of the extracellular environment are interrogated by cells and integrated through mechanotransduction. Many cellular processes depend on actomyosin-dependent contractility, which is influenced by the microenvironment's stiffness. Here, we explored the influence of substrate stiffness on the proteome of proliferating undifferentiated human umbilical cord-matrix mesenchymal stem/stromal cells. The relative abundance of several proteins changed significantly by expanding cells on soft (‚ąľ3 kPa) or stiff substrates (GPa). Many such proteins are associated with the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton, a major player of mechanotransduction and cell physiology in response to mechanical cues. Specifically, Cofilin-1 levels were elevated in cells cultured on soft comparing with stiff substrates. Furthermore, Cofilin-1 was de-phosphorylated (active) and present in the nuclei of cells kept on soft substrates, in contrast with phosphorylated (inactive) and widespread distribution in cells on stiff. Soft substrates promoted Cofilin-1-dependent increased RNA transcription and faster RNA polymerase II-mediated transcription elongation. Cofilin-1 is part of a novel mechanism linking mechanotransduction and transcription.publishe

    A complex scenario of tuberculosis transmission is revealed through genetic and epidemiological surveys in Porto

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    Tuberculosis (TB) incidence is decreasing worldwide and eradication is becoming plausible. In low-incidence countries, intervention on migrant populations is considered one of the most important strategies for elimination. However, such measures are inappropriate in European areas where TB is largely endemic, such as Porto in Portugal. We aim to understand transmission chains in Porto through a genetic characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains and through a detailed epidemiological evaluation of cases.This work was developed under the scope of the project NORTE-01-0145-FEDER-000013, supported by the Northern Portugal Regional Operational Programme (NORTE 2020), under the Portugal 2020 Partnership Agreement, through the European Regional Development Fund (FEDER), and supported by contributions from Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway through the European Economic Area Grants under the Public Health Initiative programme, (PT06, Project 000138DT1). TR is supported by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT) through a post-doctoral grant (SFRH/BPD/108126/2015)info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio
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