371 research outputs found

    Gust Alleviation Control Using Robust MPC

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    Dimethyl sulfoxide-respiring bacteria in Suribati Ike, a hypersaline lake, in Antarctica and the marine environment

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    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) occurs worldwide, especially in marine environments as well as in lakes and rainwater. DMSO respiration by bacteria is assumed to play an important role in the sulfur cycle in Antarctica and on earth. We first studied whether DMSO-respiring bacteria existed in Antarctica. Eight strains were isolated that grew by DMSO respiration under anaerobic conditions from water of the halocline in a meromictic lake, Suribati Ike, near Syowa Station in Antarctica. All of them were related to known species belonging to the genus Marinobacter based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. Using a clone library analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, 38 of total 48 clones from water of the halocline were identified as Marinobacter. Studies on the various anaerobic respiration capabilities by bacteria in the halocline water found only DMSO respiration. Studies on bacteria with anaerobic respiration abilities in seawater from the Pacific Ocean and Seto Inland Sea, showed that either DMSO-respiring or nitrate-respiring bacteria were present and that all of isolates capable of DMSO respiration were closely related to Vibrio species

    Detection of reverse transcriptase activity by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

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    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using biotin-labelled oligo-dT primer and digoxigenin (Dig)-dUTP was designed to measure the reverse transcriptase (RT) activity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). The ELISA system involves the selective detection step of a newly synthesized cDNA by two specific bindings, biotin-streptavidin binding and alkaline phosphatase (AP)-conjugated anti-Dig-Dig binding, and the enzymatic amplification step to increase coloring generated by AP. This method was used to measure the activity of RT in the culture supernatants of peripheral leukocytes obtained from four anti-HIV-1-positive persons cocultivated with those from four anti-HIV-1-negative persons. RT activity was detected in all of four anti-HIV-1-positive culture supernatants but not in those cultivated with anti-HIV-1-negative supernatants alone. Thus, our improved ELISA for detection of HIV-1 appears to be sensitive enough and useful for routine laboratory work. This non-radioactive method will also be useful for detecting other retroviruses and for screening of RT inhibitors.</p

    Ultrafiltration attenuates cardiopulmonary bypass–induced acute lung injury in a canine model of single-lung transplantation

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    ObjectiveThe purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of cardiopulmonary bypass and ultrafiltration on graft function in a canine single-lung transplantation model.MethodsFifteen left single-lung transplantations were done in weight-mismatched canine pairs. The animals were divided into 3 groups: group 1, in which transplantation was done without cardiopulmonary bypass; group 2, in which transplantation was done with cardiopulmonary bypass and in which the cardiopulmonary bypass flow was decreased slowly with controlled pulmonary artery pressure; and group 3, in which transplantation was done with cardiopulmonary bypass and ultrafiltration. Hemodynamic parameters and lung function were monitored for 6 hours after reperfusion. The grafts were harvested for histologic studies, myeloperoxidase assay, and real-time quantitive reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction of mRNA encoding interleukin 6.ResultsThe hemodynamic parameters were similar among the 3 groups. In group 1 Pao2 and alveolar to arterial gradient for O2 levels were excellent throughout the 6-hour observation period, but in group 2 they progressively deteriorated. However, ultrafiltration significantly (P = .02) improved the Pao2 level in group 3. On histology, interstitial edema and polynuclear cell infiltration were most marked in group 2 and significantly worse than in groups 1 and 3. Myeloperoxidase assay and real-time quantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction showed increased myeloperoxidase activity and interleukin 6 gene expression in group 2 grafts compared with group 1 grafts. Myeloperoxidase activity and interleukin 6 gene expression were suppressed with ultrafiltration.ConclusionsCardiopulmonary bypass had negative effects on the graft, but ultrafiltration attenuated acute lung dysfunction by reducing the inflammatory response

    Improved Neural Processing Efficiency in a Chronic Aphasia Patient Following Melodic Intonation Therapy: A Neuropsychological and Functional MRI Study

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    Melodic intonation therapy (MIT) is a treatment program for the rehabilitation of aphasic patients with speech production disorders. We report a case of severe chronic non-fluent aphasia unresponsive to several years of conventional therapy that showed a marked improvement following intensive nine-day training on the Japanese version of MIT (MIT-J). The purposes of this study were to verify the efficacy of MIT-J by functional assessment and examine associated changes in neural processing by functional magnetic resonance imaging. MIT improved language output and auditory comprehension, and decreased the response time for picture naming. Following MIT-J, an area of the right hemisphere was less activated on correct naming trials than compared to before training but similarly activated on incorrect trials. These results suggest that the aphasic symptoms of our patient were improved by increased neural processing efficiency and a concomitant decrease in cognitive load

    Effects of Rolipram and Cilostamide on Renal Functions and Cyclic AMP Release in Anesthetized Dogs 1

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    ABSTRACT The present study was undertaken to examine whether phosphodiesterases III and IV regulate renal cAMP level and whether inhibition of these enzymes influences renal functions in anesthetized dogs. The intrarenal arterial infusion of rolipram (0.1, 0.3, and 1 g/kg/min), a selective phosphodiesterase IV inhibitor, increased renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate, urine flow rate, and urinary Na ϩ excretion with elevating arterial and renal venous plasma cAMP concentrations and urinary cAMP excretion. However, cilostamide (0.1, 0.3, and 1 g/kg/min), a selective phosphodiesterase III inhibitor, did not affect the values of these parameters. Indomethacin (3 mg/kg i.v. bolus and 1 mg/kg/min i.v. infusion), a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, reduced the basal arterial and renal venous plasma cAMP concentrations and blunted the rolipram-induced elevation of cAMP concentrations and urinary cAMP excretion. The effects of rolipram on renal hemodynamics and urine formation were attenuated in the presence of indomethacin. These results suggest that in the dog kidney in vivo, 1) phosphodiesterase IV, but not phosphodiesterase III, participates in degradation of cAMP and 2) the inhibition of phosphodiesterase IV enhances glomerular filtration and urinary Na ϩ excretion, the responses of which depend in part on indomethacin-susceptible (prostaglandin-mediated, probably) control of basal cAMP level

    A Major Intestinal Catabolite of Quercetin Glycosides, 3-Hydroxyphenylacetic Acid, Protects the Hepatocytes from the Acetaldehyde-Induced Cytotoxicity through the Enhancement of the Total Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Activity

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    Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) are the major enzyme superfamily for the aldehyde metabolism. Since the ALDH polymorphism leads to the accumulation of acetaldehyde, we considered that the enhancement of the liver ALDH activity by certain food ingredients could help prevent alcohol-induced chronic diseases. Here, we evaluated the modulating effects of 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (OPAC), the major metabolite of quercetin glycosides, on the ALDH activity and acetaldehyde-induced cytotoxicity in the cultured cell models. OPAC significantly enhanced the total ALDH activity not only in mouse hepatoma Hepa1c1c7 cells, but also in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. OPAC significantly increased not only the nuclear level of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), but also the AhR-dependent reporter gene expression, though not the nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-dependent one. The pretreatment of OPAC at the concentration required for the ALDH upregulation completely inhibited the acetaldehyde-induced cytotoxicity. Silencing AhR impaired the resistant effect of OPAC against acetaldehyde. These results strongly suggested that OPAC protects the cells from the acetaldehyde-induced cytotoxicity, mainly through the AhR-dependent and Nrf2-independent enhancement of the total ALDH activity. Our findings suggest that OPAC has a protective potential in hepatocyte models and could offer a new preventive possibility of quercetin glycosides for targeting alcohol-induced chronic diseases

    Loss of IL-33 enhances elastase-induced and cigarette smoke extract-induced emphysema in mice

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    Background IL-33, which is known to induce type 2 immune responses via group 2 innate lymphoid cells, has been reported to contribute to neutrophilic airway inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, its role in the pathogenesis of emphysema remains unclear. Methods We determined the role of interleukin (IL)-33 in the development of emphysema using porcine pancreas elastase (PPE) and cigarette smoke extract (CSE) in mice. First, IL-33(-/-) mice and wild-type (WT) mice were given PPE intratracheally. The numbers of inflammatory cells, and the levels of cytokines and chemokines in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and lung homogenates, were analyzed; quantitative morphometry of lung sections was also performed. Second, mice received CSE by intratracheal instillation. Quantitative morphometry of lung sections was then performed again. Results Intratracheal instillation of PPE induced emphysematous changes and increased IL-33 levels in the lungs. Compared to WT mice, IL-33(-/-) mice showed significantly greater PPE-induced emphysematous changes. No differences were observed between IL-33(-/-) and WT mice in the numbers of macrophages or neutrophils in BAL fluid. The levels of hepatocyte growth factor were lower in the BAL fluid of PPE-treated IL-33(-/-) mice than WT mice. IL-33(-/-) mice also showed significantly greater emphysematous changes in the lungs, compared to WT mice, following intratracheal instillation of CSE. Conclusion These observations suggest that loss of IL-33 promotes the development of emphysema and may be potentially harmful to patients with COPD
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