136 research outputs found

    Research Models for Studying Vascular Calcification

    Get PDF
    Calcification of the vessel wall contributes to high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Vascular calcification (VC) is a systemic disease with multifaceted contributing and inhibiting factors in an actively regulated process. The exact underlying mechanisms are not fully elucidated and reliable treatment options are lacking. Due to the complex pathophysiology, various research models exist evaluating different aspects of VC. This review aims to give an overview of the cell and animal models used so far to study the molecular processes of VC. Here, in vitro cell culture models of different origins, ex vivo settings using aortic tissue and various in vivo disease-induced animal models are summarized. They reflect different aspects and depict the (patho)physiologic mechanisms within the VC process

    Would Oscillometry be Able to Solve the Dilemma of Blood Pressure Independent Pulse Wave Velocity – A Novel Approach Based on Long-Term Pulse Wave Analysis?

    Get PDF
    The utility of pulse wave velocity (PWV) as a surrogate parameter of arterial vessel damage (AVD) beyond the traditional brachial blood pressure (BP) measurement may be questioned as changes in BP are often accompanied by the corresponding changes in PWV. We sought to establish a new way for BP-independent estimation of AVD with PWV. We retrospectively analyzed data from 507 subjects with at least one available 24 h ambulatory BP- and pulse wave analysis, performed with Mobil-O-Graph (I.E.M., Stolberg, Germany). Individual relationship between eaPWV and central systolic BP (cSBP) was analyzed for every 24 h recording. The analysis revealed linear relation between eaPWV and cSBP in all subjects, which is described by equation eaPWV = a*cSBP + b. We termed "a" as PWVslope and "b" as PWVbaseline. All available demographic parameters and clinical data were correlated with eaPWV, PWVslope and PWVbaseline. 108 subjects had repeated 24 h recordings. Mean age was 60.7 years and 48.7% were female. 92.5% had hypertension, 22.9% were smoker, 20.5% had diabetes mellitus and 29.6% eGFR < 60 ml/min/1,73 m(2). Direct correlation was observed between age, SBP and eaPWV, while diastolic BP (DBP) and eGFR correlated inversely with eaPWV. PWVbaseline correlated directly with age and inversely with DBP, while PWVslope didn't correlate with any inputted parameter. Using simple mathematical approach by plotting eaPWV and cSBP values obtained during ABPM, it is possible to visualize unique course of individual PWV related to BP. Using PWVslope and PWVbaseline as novel parameters could be a feasible way to approach BP-independent PWV, though their clinical relevance should be tested in future studies. Our data underline the importance of BP-independent expression of PWV, when we use it as a clinical surrogate parameter for the vascular damage

    The cardiovascular phenotype of adult patients with phenylketonuria

    Get PDF
    BACKGROUND: Patients with Phenylketonuria (PKU) are exposed to multiple cardiovascular risk factors, but the clinical significance of these abnormalities is yet unknown. The purpose of this study was to characterize the cardiovascular phenotype in adult patients with PKU by clinical and dietary data, measurements of biochemical markers, and non-invasive examination of vascular functions. RESULTS: Twenty-three adult patients with PKU (age: 18-47 y; 30.8 ± 8.4 y) and 28 healthy controls (age: 18-47 y; 30.1 ± 9.1 y) were included in this study. PKU patients had significantly higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure, increased resting heart rate and a higher body mass index. Total cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol levels were significantly increased in PKU patients, whereas plasma levels of HDL cholesterol and its subfraction HDL2 (but not HDL3) were significantly decreased. The inflammatory markers C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A protein and the serum oxidative stress marker malondialdehyde were significantly higher in patients with PKU. Venous occlusion plethysmography showed marked reduction in post-ischemic blood flow and the carotid to femoral pulse wave velocity was significantly increased demonstrating endothelial dysfunction and increased vascular stiffness. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that the cardiovascular phenotype of adult PKU patients is characterized by an accumulation of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, high levels of inflammatory and oxidative stress markers, endothelial dysfunction and vascular stiffness. These data indicate the need for early cardiovascular risk reduction in patients with PKU

    Interaction of Human Serum Albumin with short Polyelectrolytes: A study by Calorimetry and Computer Simulation

    Full text link
    We present a comprehensive study of the interaction of human serum albumin (HSA) with poly(acrylic acid) (PAA; number average degree of polymerization: 25) in aqueous solution. The interaction of HSA with PAA is studied in dilute solution as the function of the concentration of added salt (20 - 100 mM) and temperature (25 - 37^{\circ}C). Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is used to analyze the interaction and to determine the binding constant and related thermodynamic data. It is found that only one PAA chain is bound per HSA molecule. The free energy of binding ΔGb\Delta G_b increases with temperature significantly. ΔGb\Delta G_b decreases with increasing salt concentration and is dominated by entropic contributions due to the release of bound counterions. Coarse-grained Langevin computer simulations treating the counterions in an explicit manner are used study the process of binding in detail. These simulations demonstrate that the PAA chains are bound in the Sudlow II site of the HSA. Moreover, ΔGb\Delta G_b is calculated from the simulations and found to be in very good agreement with the measured data. The simulations demonstrate clearly that the driving force of binding is the release of counterions in full agreement with the ITC-data

    Induction of Mineralization

    Get PDF
    Vascular mineralization contributes to the high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients who suffer from chronic kidney disease and in individuals who have undergone solid organ transplantation. The immunosuppressive regimen used to treat these patients appears to have an impact on vascular alterations. The effect of 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) on vascular calcification has not yet been determined. This study investigates the effect of 6-MP on vascular mineralization by the induction of trans- differentiation of rat vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro. 6-MP not only induces the expression of osteo-chondrocyte-like transcription factors and proteins but also activates alkaline phosphatase enzyme activity and produces calcium deposition in in vitro and ex vivo models. These processes are dependent on 6-MP-induced production of reactive oxygen species, intracellular activation of mitogen-activated kinases and phosphorylation of the transcription factor Cbfa1. Furthermore, the metabolic products of 6-MP, 6-thioguanine nucleotides and 6-methyl-thio-inosine monophosphate have major impacts on cellular calcification. These data provide evidence for a possible harmful effect of the immunosuppressive drug 6-MP in vascular diseases, such as arteriosclerosis

    A Novel Long-Term ex vivo Model for Studying Vascular Calcification Pathogenesis: The Rat Isolated-Perfused Aorta

    Get PDF
    The investigation of vascular calcification and its underlying cellular and molecular pathways is of great interest in current research efforts. Therefore, suitable assays are needed to allow examination of the complex calcification process under controlled conditions. The current study describes a new ex vivo model of isolated-perfused rat aortic tissue with subsequent quantification and vessel staining to analyze the calcium content of the aortic wall. A rat aorta was perfused ex vivo with control and calcification media for 14 days, respectively. The calcification medium was luminally perfused and induced a significant increase in calcium deposition within the media of the vessel wall detected alongside the elastic laminae. Perfusion with control medium induced no calcification. In addition, the mRNA expression of the osteogenic marker bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) increased in aortic tissue after perfusion, while SM22α as smooth muscle marker decreased. This newly developed ex vivo model of isolated-perfused rat aorta is suitable for vascular calcification studies testing inducers and inhibitors of vessel calcification and studying signaling pathways within calcification progression

    Stressor-Induced “Inflammaging” of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells via Nlrp3-Mediated Pro-inflammatory Auto-Loop

    Get PDF
    Calcification of the vessel wall as one structural pathology of aged vessels is associated with high cardiovascular mortality of elderly patients. Aging is linked to chronic sterile inflammation and high burden of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to activation of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) such as Nlrp3 in vascular cells. The current study investigates the role of PRR activation in the calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Therefore, in vitro cell culture of primary rat VSMCs and ex vivo aortic stimulations were used to analyze osteogenic, senescence and inflammatory markers via real-time PCR, in situ RNA hybridization, Western Blot, photometric assays and histological staining. Induction of ROS and DNA-damage by doxorubicin induces a shift of VSMC phenotype toward the expression of osteogenic, senescence and inflammatory proteins. Induction of calcification is dependent on Nlrp3 activity. Il-1 beta as a downstream target of Nlrp3 induces the synthetic, pro-calcifying VSMC phenotype. Inhibition of PRR with subsequent reduction of chronic inflammation might be an interesting target for reduction of calcification of VSMCs, with subsequent reduction of cardiovascular mortality of patients suffering from vessel stiffness

    Statin use and incident cardiovascular events in renal transplant recipients

    Get PDF
    BACKGROUND: Statins achieve potent LDL lowering in the general population leading to a significant cardiovascular (CV) risk reduction. In renal transplant recipients (RTR) statins are included in treatment guidelines, however, conclusive evidence of improved cardiovascular outcomes has not been uniformly provided and concerns have been raised about simultaneous use of statins and the immunosuppressant cyclosporine. This study aimed to elucidate the effect of statins on a compound CV endpoint, comprised of ischaemic CV events and CV mortality in RTR, with subgroup analysis focussing on cyclosporine users. METHOD: 622 included RTR (follow‐up 5.4 years) were matched based on propensity scores and dichotomized by statin use. Survival analysis was conducted. RESULTS: Cox regression showed that statin use was not significantly associated with the compound CV endpoint in a fully adjusted model (HR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.53‐1.24, P = .33). Subgroup analyses in RTR using cyclosporine revealed a strong positive association of statin use with the CV compound outcome in a fully adjusted model (HR = 6.60, 95% CI 1.75‐24.9, P = .005). Furthermore, statin use was positively correlated with cyclosporine trough levels (correlation coefficient 0.11, P = .04). CONCLUSION: In conclusion, statin use does not significantly decrease incident CV events in an overall RTR cohort, but is independently associated with CV‐specific mortality and events in cyclosporine using RTR, possibly due to a bilateral pharmacological interaction