1,032 research outputs found

    FKBP12 associates tightly with the skeletal muscle type 1 ryanodine receptor, but not with other intracellular calcium release channels

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    AbstractThis study compared the relative levels of ryanodine receptor (RyR) isoforms, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) isoforms, and calcineurin, plus their association with FKBP12 in brain, skeletal and cardiac tissue. FKBP12 demonstrated a very tight, high affinity association with skeletal muscle microsomes, which was displaced by FK506. In contrast, FKBP12 was not tightly associated with brain or cardiac microsomes and did not require FK506 for removal from these organelles. Furthermore, of the proteins solubilised from skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle and brain microsomes, only skeletal muscle RyR1 bound to an FKBP12–glutathione-S-transferase fusion protein, in a high affinity FK506 displaceable manner. These results suggest that RyR1 has distinctive FKBP12 binding properties when compared to RyR2, RyR3, all IP3R isoforms and calcineurin

    Community fire prevention via population segmentation modelling

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    In this paper we examine the use of population segmentation modelling for targeting fire prevention to the needs of the community. A population segmentation approach based upon socio-economic characteristics data was developed to provide a deeper understanding of the fire risks associated with different social groups by a partnership consisting of a UK fire and rescue service, a National Health Service trust, a local council, and a police force. This approach supported more targeted and co-ordinated community fire prevention measures by the agencies involved. This approach was used to target those most at risk, and improve intra-agency co-ordination and collaboration between the agencies involved. The modelling enabled differences in terms of the risk of fire related injuries and fatalities between the population segments to be examined. Overall, the research examines how and why population segmentation was undertaken by the fire and rescue service studied, and how this was implemented and used operationally to support fire prevention activities. The project was funded by the UK Department of Communities and Local Government

    Characterization of a Lamellocyte Transcriptional Enhancer Located within the misshapen Gene of Drosophila melanogaster

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    Drosophila has emerged as an excellent model system in which to study cellular and genetic aspects of hematopoiesis. Under normal developmental conditions and in wild-type genetic backgrounds, Drosophila possesses two types of blood cells, crystal cells and plasmatocytes. Upon infestation by a parasitic wasp or in certain altered genetic backgrounds, a third hemocyte class called the lamellocyte becomes apparent. Herein we describe the characterization of a novel transcriptional regulatory module, a lamellocyte-active enhancer of the misshapen gene. This transcriptional control sequence appears to be inactive in all cell types of the wild-type larva, including crystal cells and plasmatocytes. However, in lamellocytes induced by wasp infestation or by particular genetic conditions, the enhancer is activated and it directs reporter GFP or DsRed expression exclusively in lamellocytes. The lamellocyte control region was delimited to a 140-bp intronic sequence that contains an essential DNA recognition element for the AP-1 transcription factor. Additionally, mutation of the kayak gene encoding the dFos subunit of AP-1 led to a strong suppression of lamellocyte production in tumorous larvae. As misshapen encodes a protein kinase within the Jun N-terminal kinase signaling pathway that functions to form an active AP-1 complex, the lamellocyte-active enhancer likely serves as a transcriptional target within a genetic auto-regulatory circuit that promotes the production of lamellocytes in immune-challenged or genetically- compromised animals

    Pressure Overload in Mice With Haploinsufficiency of Striated Preferentially Expressed Gene Leads to Decompensated Heart Failure

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    Striated preferentially expressed gene (Speg) is a member of the myosin light chain kinase family of proteins. Constitutive Speg deficient (Speg(-/-)) mice develop a dilated cardiomyopathy, and the majority of these mice die in utero or shortly after birth. In the present study we assessed the importance of Speg in adult mice. Speg(-/-) mice that survived to adulthood, or adult striated muscle-specific Speg knockout mice (Speg-KO), demonstrated cardiac dysfunction and evidence of increased left ventricular (LV) internal diameter and heart to body weight ratio. To determine whether heterozygosity of Speg interferes with the response of the heart to pathophysiologic stress, Speg(+/-) mice were exposed to pressure overload induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC). At baseline, Speg(+/+) and Speg(+/-) hearts showed no difference in cardiac function. However, 4 weeks after TAC, Speg(+/-) mice had a marked reduction in LV function. This defect was associated with an increase in LV internal diameter and enhanced heart weight to body weight ratio, compared with Speg(+/+) mice after TAC. The response of Speg(+/-) mice to pressure overload also included increased fibrotic deposition in the myocardium, disruption of transverse tubules, and attenuation in cell contractility, compared with Speg(+/+) mice. Taken together, these data demonstrate that Speg is necessary for normal cardiac function and is involved in the complex adaptation of the heart in response to TAC. Haploinsufficiency of Speg results in decompensated heart failure when exposed to pressure overload

    Changes in Cardiac Substrate Transporters and Metabolic Proteins Mirror the Metabolic Shift in Patients with Aortic Stenosis

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    In the hypertrophied human heart, fatty acid metabolism is decreased and glucose utilisation is increased. We hypothesized that the sarcolemmal and mitochondrial proteins involved in these key metabolic pathways would mirror these changes, providing a mechanism to account for the modified metabolic flux measured in the human heart. Echocardiography was performed to assess in vivo hypertrophy and aortic valve impairment in patients with aortic stenosis (n = 18). Cardiac biopsies were obtained during valve replacement surgery, and used for western blotting to measure metabolic protein levels. Protein levels of the predominant fatty acid transporter, fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) correlated negatively with levels of the glucose transporters, GLUT1 and GLUT4. The decrease in FAT/CD36 was accompanied by decreases in the fatty acid binding proteins, FABPpm and H-FABP, the β-oxidation protein medium chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase, the Krebs cycle protein α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and the oxidative phosphorylation protein ATP synthase. FAT/CD36 and complex I of the electron transport chain were downregulated, whereas the glucose transporter GLUT4 was upregulated with increasing left ventricular mass index, a measure of cardiac hypertrophy. In conclusion, coordinated downregulation of sequential steps involved in fatty acid and oxidative metabolism occur in the human heart, accompanied by upregulation of the glucose transporters. The profile of the substrate transporters and metabolic proteins mirror the metabolic shift from fatty acid to glucose utilisation that occurs in vivo in the human heart

    Variation in LPA Is Associated with Lp(a) Levels in Three Populations from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

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    The distribution of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] levels can differ dramatically across diverse racial/ethnic populations. The extent to which genetic variation in LPA can explain these differences is not fully understood. To explore this, 19 LPA tagSNPs were genotyped in 7,159 participants from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). NHANES III is a diverse population-based survey with DNA samples linked to hundreds of quantitative traits, including serum Lp(a). Tests of association between LPA variants and transformed Lp(a) levels were performed across the three different NHANES subpopulations (non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, and Mexican Americans). At a significance threshold of p<0.0001, 15 of the 19 SNPs tested were strongly associated with Lp(a) levels in at least one subpopulation, six in at least two subpopulations, and none in all three subpopulations. In non-Hispanic whites, three variants were associated with Lp(a) levels, including previously known rs6919246 (p = 1.18×10−30). Additionally, 12 and 6 variants had significant associations in non-Hispanic blacks and Mexican Americans, respectively. The additive effects of these associated alleles explained up to 11% of the variance observed for Lp(a) levels in the different racial/ethnic populations. The findings reported here replicate previous candidate gene and genome-wide association studies for Lp(a) levels in European-descent populations and extend these findings to other populations. While we demonstrate that LPA is an important contributor to Lp(a) levels regardless of race/ethnicity, the lack of generalization of associations across all subpopulations suggests that specific LPA variants may be contributing to the observed Lp(a) between-population variance

    Associations Between Complex PCI and Prasugrel or Clopidogrel Use in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome Who Undergo PCI: From the PROMETHEUS Study.

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    BACKGROUND: Potent P2Y12 inhibitors might offer enhanced benefit against thrombotic events in complex percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We examined prasugrel use and outcomes according to PCI complexity, as well as analyzing treatment effects according to thienopyridine type. METHODS: PROMETHEUS was a multicentre observational study that compared clopidogrel vs prasugrel in acute coronary syndrome patients who underwent PCI (n = 19,914). Complex PCI was defined as PCI of the left main, bifurcation lesion, moderate-severely calcified lesion, or total stent length ≥ 30 mm. Major adverse cardiac events (MACE) were a composite of death, myocardial infarction, stroke, or unplanned revascularization. Outcomes were adjusted using multivariable Cox regression for effect of PCI complexity and propensity-stratified analysis for effect of thienopyridine type. RESULTS: The study cohort included 48.9% (n = 9735) complex and 51.1% (n = 10,179) noncomplex patients. Second generation drug-eluting stents were used in 70.1% complex and 66.2% noncomplex PCI patients (P < 0.0001). Complex PCI was associated with greater adjusted risk of 1-year MACE (hazard ratio [HR], 1.29; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-1.39; P < 0.001). Prasugrel was prescribed in 20.7% of complex and 20.1% of noncomplex PCI patients (P = 0.30). Compared with clopidogrel, prasugrel significantly decreased adjusted risk for 1-year MACE in complex PCI (HR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.68-0.92) but not noncomplex PCI (HR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.77-1.08), albeit there was no evidence of interaction (P interaction = 0.281). CONCLUSIONS: Despite the use of contemporary techniques, acute coronary syndrome patients who undergo complex PCI had significantly higher rates of 1-year MACE. Adjusted magnitude of treatment effects with prasugrel vs clopidogrel were consistent in complex and noncomplex PCI without evidence of interaction

    Differential Deployment of REST and CoREST Promotes Glial Subtype Specification and Oligodendrocyte Lineage Maturation

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    The repressor element-1 (RE1) silencing transcription factor/neuron-restrictive silencer factor (REST/NRSF) is a master transcriptional regulator that binds to numerous genomic RE1 sites where it acts as a molecular scaffold for dynamic recruitment of modulatory and epigenetic cofactors, including corepressor for element-1-silencing transcription factor (CoREST). CoREST also acts as a hub for various cofactors that play important roles in epigenetic remodeling and transcriptional regulation. While REST can recruit CoREST to its macromolecular complex, CoREST complexes also function at genomic sites independently of REST. REST and CoREST perform a broad array of context-specific functions, which include repression of neuronal differentiation genes in neural stem cells (NSCs) and other non-neuronal cells as well as promotion of neurogenesis. Despite their involvement in multiple aspects of neuronal development, REST and CoREST are not believed to have any direct modulatory roles in glial cell maturation.We challenged this view by performing the first study of REST and CoREST in NSC-mediated glial lineage specification and differentiation. Utilizing ChIP on chip (ChIP-chip) assays, we identified distinct but overlapping developmental stage-specific profiles for REST and CoREST target genes during astrocyte (AS) and oligodendrocyte (OL) lineage specification and OL lineage maturation and myelination, including many genes not previously implicated in glial cell biology or linked to REST and CoREST regulation. Amongst these factors are those implicated in macroglial (AS and OL) cell identity, maturation, and maintenance, such as members of key developmental signaling pathways and combinatorial transcription factor codes.Our results imply that REST and CoREST modulate not only neuronal but also glial lineage elaboration. These factors may therefore mediate critical developmental processes including the coupling of neurogenesis and gliogenesis and neuronal-glial interactions that underlie synaptic and neural network plasticity and homeostasis in health and in specific neurological disease states

    Frontotemporal dementia and its subtypes: a genome-wide association study

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    SummaryBackground Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a complex disorder characterised by a broad range of clinical manifestations, differential pathological signatures, and genetic variability. Mutations in three genes—MAPT, GRN, and C9orf72—have been associated with FTD. We sought to identify novel genetic risk loci associated with the disorder. Methods We did a two-stage genome-wide association study on clinical FTD, analysing samples from 3526 patients with {FTD} and 9402 healthy controls. To reduce genetic heterogeneity, all participants were of European ancestry. In the discovery phase (samples from 2154 patients with {FTD} and 4308 controls), we did separate association analyses for each {FTD} subtype (behavioural variant FTD, semantic dementia, progressive non-fluent aphasia, and {FTD} overlapping with motor neuron disease FTD-MND), followed by a meta-analysis of the entire dataset. We carried forward replication of the novel suggestive loci in an independent sample series (samples from 1372 patients and 5094 controls) and then did joint phase and brain expression and methylation quantitative trait loci analyses for the associated (p&lt;5 × 10−8) single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Findings We identified novel associations exceeding the genome-wide significance threshold (p&lt;5 × 10−8). Combined (joint) analyses of discovery and replication phases showed genome-wide significant association at 6p21.3, \{HLA\} locus (immune system), for rs9268877 (p=1·05 × 10−8; odds ratio=1·204 95% \{CI\} 1·11–1·30), rs9268856 (p=5·51 × 10−9; 0·809 0·76–0·86) and rs1980493 (p value=1·57 × 10−8, 0·775 0·69–0·86) in the entire cohort. We also identified a potential novel locus at 11q14, encompassing RAB38/CTSC (the transcripts of which are related to lysosomal biology), for the behavioural \{FTD\} subtype for which joint analyses showed suggestive association for rs302668 (p=2·44 × 10−7; 0·814 0·71–0·92). Analysis of expression and methylation quantitative trait loci data suggested that these loci might affect expression and methylation in cis. Interpretation Our findings suggest that immune system processes (link to 6p21.3) and possibly lysosomal and autophagy pathways (link to 11q14) are potentially involved in FTD. Our findings need to be replicated to better define the association of the newly identified loci with disease and to shed light on the pathomechanisms contributing to FTD. Funding The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and National Institute on Aging, the Wellcome/MRC Centre on Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's Research UK, and Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center
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