227 research outputs found

    Simulations of ELT-GMCAO performance for deep field observations

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    The Global-Multi Conjugated Adaptive Optics (GMCAO) approach offers an alternative way to correct an adequate scientific Field of View (FoV) using only natural guide stars (NGSs) to extremely large ground-based telescopes. Thus, even in the absence of laser guide stars, a GMCAO-equipped ELT-like telescope can achieve optimal performance in terms of Strehl Ratio (SR), retrieving impressive results in studying star-poor fields, as in the cases of the deep field observations. The benefits and usability of GMCAO have been demonstrated by studying 6000 mock high redshift galaxies in the Chandra Deep Field South region. However, a systematic study simulating observations in several portions of the sky is mandatory to have a robust statistic of the GMCAO performance. Technical, tomographic and astrophysical parameters, discussed here, are given as inputs to GIUSTO, an IDL-based code that estimates the SR over the considered field, and the results are analyzed with statistical considerations. The best performance is obtained using stars that are relatively close to the Scientific FoV; therefore, the SR correlates with the mean off-axis position of NGSs, as expected, while their magnitude plays a secondary role. This study concludes that the SRs correlate linearly with the galactic latitude, as also expected. Because of the lack of natural guide stars needed for low-order aberration sensing, the GMCAO confirms as a promising technique to observe regions that can not be studied without the use of laser beacons. It represents a robust alternative way or a risk mitigation strategy for laser approaches on the ELTs.Comment: 18 pages, 10 figures, accepted for publication on PAS

    Associations between a one-shot delay discounting measure and age, income, education and real-world impulsive behavior

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    There has been discussion over the extent to which delay discounting ‚Äď as prototypically shown by a preference for a smaller-sooner sum of money over a larger-later sum ‚Äď measures the same kind of impulsive preferences that drive non-financial behavior. To address this issue, a dataset was analyzed containing 42,863 participants‚Äô responses to a single delay-discounting choice, along with self-report behaviors that can be considered as impulsive. Choice of a smaller-sooner sum was associated with several demographics: younger age, lower income, and lower education; and impulsive behaviors: earlier age of first sexual activity and recent relationship infidelity, smoking, and higher body mass index. These findings suggest that at least an aspect of delay discounting preference is associated with a general trait influencing other forms of impulsivity, and therefore that high delay discounting is another form of impulsive behavior

    Hierarchichal-segmented AO in order to attain wide field compensation in the visible on an 8m class telescope

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    We describe the preliminary optimized layout for a partially optimized concept of an optical-8m class VLT-like 2x2 segmented camera where each channel is assisted by an equivalent of an MCAO system where the ground layer correction is commonly employed while the high altitude ones is performed in an open-loop fashion. While we derive the basic relationships among the Field of View and attainable correction with a pre-defined choice for the hardware, we discuss sky coverage and wavefront sensing issues employing natural and artificial references, involving the latest stateof-the-art in the development of wavefront sensing. We show that a flexible approach allow for a compensated Field of View that is variable and can be properly tuned matching the current turbulence situation and the requirement in term of quality of the compensation. A preliminary description of the overall optomechanical package is given as well along with a rough estimates of the efforts required to translates such a concept into reality.Comment: 6 pages, 4 figures, in AO4ELT5 Proceeding

    Multiple Spatial Frequencies Pyramid WaveFront Sensing

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    A modification of the pyramid wavefront sensor is described. In this conceptually new class of devices, the perturbations are split at the level of the focal plane depending upon their spatial frequencies, and then measured separately. The aim of this approach is to increase the accuracy in the determination of some range of spatial frequency perturbations, or a certain classes of modes, disentangling them from the noise associated to the Poissonian fluctuations of the light coming from the perturbations outside of the range of interest or from the background in the pupil planes; the latter case specifically when the pyramid wavefront sensor is used with a large modulation. While the limits and the effectiveness of this approach should be further investigated, a number of variations on the concept are shown, including a generalization of the spatial filtering in the point-diffraction wavefront sensor. The simplest application, a generalization to the pyramid of the well-known spatially filtering in wavefront sensing, is showing promise as a significant limiting magnitude advance. Applications are further speculated in the area of extreme adaptive optics and when serving spectroscopic instrumentation where ‚Äúlight in the bucket‚ÄĚ rather than Strehl performance is required

    Ingot Laser Guide Stars Wavefront Sensing

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    We revisit one class of z-invariant WaveFront sensor where the LGS is fired aside of the telescope aperture. In this way there is a spatial dependence on the focal plane with respect to the height where the resonant scattering occurs. We revise the basic parameters involving the geometry and we propose various merit functions to define how much improvement can be attained by a z-invariant approach. We show that refractive approaches are not viable and we discuss several solutions involving reflective ones in what has been nicknamed "ingot wavefront sensor" discussing the degrees of freedom required to keep tracking and the basic recipe for the optical design.Comment: 6 pages, 4 figures, AO4ELT5 Conference Proceeding, 201

    A Holographic Diffuser Generalised Optical Differentiation Wavefront Sensor

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    The wavefront sensors used today at the biggest World's telescopes have either a high dynamic range or a high sensitivity, and they are subject to a linear trade off between these two parameters. A new class of wavefront sensors, the Generalised Optical Differentiation Wavefront Sensors, has been devised, in a way not to undergo this linear trade off and to decouple the dynamic range from the sensitivity. This new class of WFSs is based on the light filtering in the focal plane from a dedicated amplitude filter, which is a hybrid between a linear filter, whose physical dimension is related to the dynamic range, and a step in the amplitude, whose size is related to the sensitivity. We propose here a possible technical implementation of this kind of WFS, making use of a simple holographic diffuser to diffract part of the light in a ring shape around the pin of a pyramid wavefront sensor. In this way, the undiffracted light reaches the pin of the pyramid, contributing to the high sensitivity regime of the WFS, while the diffused light is giving a sort of static modulation of the pyramid, allowing to have some signal even in high turbulence conditions. The holographic diffuser zeroth order efficiency is strictly related to the sensitivity of the WFS, while the diffusing angle of the diffracted light gives the amount of modulation and thus the dynamic range. By properly choosing these two parameters it is possible to build a WFS with high sensitivity and high dynamic range in a static fashion. Introducing dynamic parts in the setup allows to have a set of different diffuser that can be alternated in front of the pyramid, if the change in the seeing conditions requires it.Comment: 11 pages, 5 figure


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    Multiple spatial frequencies wavefront sensing

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    We describe the concept of splitting spatial frequency perturbations into some kind of pupil planes wavefront sensors. Further to the existing approach of dropping higher spatial frequency to suppress aliasing effects (the so-called spatial filtered Shack-Hartmann), we point out that spatial frequencies splitting and mixing of these in a proper manner, could be handled in order to exhibit some practical or fundamental advantages. In this framework we describe the idea behind such class of concepts and we derive the relationship useful to determine if, by which extent, and under what kind of merit function, these devices can overperform existing conventional sensors.Comment: 6 pages, 3 figures, in AO4ELT5 Proceeding

    Prospects of Deep Field Surveys with Global-MCAO on an ELT

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    Several astronomical surveys aimed at the investigation of the extragalactic components were carried out in order to map systematically the universe and its constituents. An excellent level of detail is needed, and it is possible only using space telescopes or with the application of adaptive optics (AO) techniques for ground-based observatories. By simulating K-band observations of 6000 high-redshift galaxies in the Chandra Deep Field South region, we have already shown how an extremely large telescope can carry out photometric surveys successfully using the Global-MCAO, a natural guide stars based technique that allows the development of extragalactic research, otherwise impracticable without using laser guide stars. As the outcome of the analysis represents an impact science case for the new instruments on upcoming ground-based telescopes, here we show how the investigation of other observed deep fields could profit from such a technique. Further to an overview of the surveys suitable for the proposed approach, we show preliminary estimations both on geometrical (FoV and height) and purely AO perspectives (richness and homogeneity of guide stars in the area) for planned giant telescope.Comment: 8 pages, 6 figures, AO4ELT5 conferenc
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