83 research outputs found

    Multiple Spatial Frequencies Pyramid WaveFront Sensing

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    A modification of the pyramid wavefront sensor is described. In this conceptually new class of devices, the perturbations are split at the level of the focal plane depending upon their spatial frequencies, and then measured separately. The aim of this approach is to increase the accuracy in the determination of some range of spatial frequency perturbations, or a certain classes of modes, disentangling them from the noise associated to the Poissonian fluctuations of the light coming from the perturbations outside of the range of interest or from the background in the pupil planes; the latter case specifically when the pyramid wavefront sensor is used with a large modulation. While the limits and the effectiveness of this approach should be further investigated, a number of variations on the concept are shown, including a generalization of the spatial filtering in the point-diffraction wavefront sensor. The simplest application, a generalization to the pyramid of the well-known spatially filtering in wavefront sensing, is showing promise as a significant limiting magnitude advance. Applications are further speculated in the area of extreme adaptive optics and when serving spectroscopic instrumentation where “light in the bucket” rather than Strehl performance is required

    Ingot Laser Guide Stars Wavefront Sensing

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    We revisit one class of z-invariant WaveFront sensor where the LGS is fired aside of the telescope aperture. In this way there is a spatial dependence on the focal plane with respect to the height where the resonant scattering occurs. We revise the basic parameters involving the geometry and we propose various merit functions to define how much improvement can be attained by a z-invariant approach. We show that refractive approaches are not viable and we discuss several solutions involving reflective ones in what has been nicknamed "ingot wavefront sensor" discussing the degrees of freedom required to keep tracking and the basic recipe for the optical design.Comment: 6 pages, 4 figures, AO4ELT5 Conference Proceeding, 201

    A Holographic Diffuser Generalised Optical Differentiation Wavefront Sensor

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    The wavefront sensors used today at the biggest World's telescopes have either a high dynamic range or a high sensitivity, and they are subject to a linear trade off between these two parameters. A new class of wavefront sensors, the Generalised Optical Differentiation Wavefront Sensors, has been devised, in a way not to undergo this linear trade off and to decouple the dynamic range from the sensitivity. This new class of WFSs is based on the light filtering in the focal plane from a dedicated amplitude filter, which is a hybrid between a linear filter, whose physical dimension is related to the dynamic range, and a step in the amplitude, whose size is related to the sensitivity. We propose here a possible technical implementation of this kind of WFS, making use of a simple holographic diffuser to diffract part of the light in a ring shape around the pin of a pyramid wavefront sensor. In this way, the undiffracted light reaches the pin of the pyramid, contributing to the high sensitivity regime of the WFS, while the diffused light is giving a sort of static modulation of the pyramid, allowing to have some signal even in high turbulence conditions. The holographic diffuser zeroth order efficiency is strictly related to the sensitivity of the WFS, while the diffusing angle of the diffracted light gives the amount of modulation and thus the dynamic range. By properly choosing these two parameters it is possible to build a WFS with high sensitivity and high dynamic range in a static fashion. Introducing dynamic parts in the setup allows to have a set of different diffuser that can be alternated in front of the pyramid, if the change in the seeing conditions requires it.Comment: 11 pages, 5 figure

    Multiple spatial frequencies wavefront sensing

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    We describe the concept of splitting spatial frequency perturbations into some kind of pupil planes wavefront sensors. Further to the existing approach of dropping higher spatial frequency to suppress aliasing effects (the so-called spatial filtered Shack-Hartmann), we point out that spatial frequencies splitting and mixing of these in a proper manner, could be handled in order to exhibit some practical or fundamental advantages. In this framework we describe the idea behind such class of concepts and we derive the relationship useful to determine if, by which extent, and under what kind of merit function, these devices can overperform existing conventional sensors.Comment: 6 pages, 3 figures, in AO4ELT5 Proceeding

    Prospects of Deep Field Surveys with Global-MCAO on an ELT

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    Several astronomical surveys aimed at the investigation of the extragalactic components were carried out in order to map systematically the universe and its constituents. An excellent level of detail is needed, and it is possible only using space telescopes or with the application of adaptive optics (AO) techniques for ground-based observatories. By simulating K-band observations of 6000 high-redshift galaxies in the Chandra Deep Field South region, we have already shown how an extremely large telescope can carry out photometric surveys successfully using the Global-MCAO, a natural guide stars based technique that allows the development of extragalactic research, otherwise impracticable without using laser guide stars. As the outcome of the analysis represents an impact science case for the new instruments on upcoming ground-based telescopes, here we show how the investigation of other observed deep fields could profit from such a technique. Further to an overview of the surveys suitable for the proposed approach, we show preliminary estimations both on geometrical (FoV and height) and purely AO perspectives (richness and homogeneity of guide stars in the area) for planned giant telescope.Comment: 8 pages, 6 figures, AO4ELT5 conferenc

    Post-traumatic growth enhances social identification in liver transplant patients: a longitudinal study

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    Objective: The main aim of this paper is to investigate the prediction that greater subjective identification with relevant groups and social categories (i.e. family ) can be an outcome of post-traumatic growth (PTG). To date there are no studies that have explored these relationships. Methods: A longitudinal study was conducted with a group of 100 liver transplant patients from the outpatient populations of the participating centre. Data were collected by means of a self-report questionnaire, which was completed at two different time points (T1 and T2) that were 24 months apart. PTG was assessed using the Post-Traumatic Growth Inventory, while both transplantee and family identification were assessed using group identification scales. A path model was tested, using a structural equation model (SEM) approach, to examine the reciprocal effects among family identification, transplantee identification, and PTG over time. Results: As predicted, we found that greater PTG T1 predicted both greater family identification T2 and marginally greater transplantee identification T2. However, the two identification variables did not predict PTG over time. Conclusions: The results show that family identification and transplantee identification may be outcomes of the PTG process, confirming the importance of adopting a thriving multidimensional model of adjustment to medical illness, whereby people facing adverse life events, such as transplantation, may flourish rather than deteriorate psychologically

    第792回 千葉医学会例会・第二内科例会 35.

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    Many studies have focused on Type A and Type D personality types in the context of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), but nothing is known about how these personality types combine to create new profiles. The present study aimed to develop a typology of Type A and Type D personality in two groups of patients affected by and at risk for coronary disease. The study involved 711 patients: 51.6% with acute coronary syndrome, 48.4% with essential hypertension (mean age = 56.4 years; SD = 9.7 years; 70.7% men). Cluster analysis was applied. External variables, such as socio-demographic, psychological, lifestyle, and clinical parameters, were assessed. Six groups, each with its own unique combined personality profile scores, were identified: Type D, Type A-Negatively Affected, Not Type A-Negatively Affected, Socially Inhibited-Positively Affected, Not Socially Inhibited, and Not Type A-Not Type D. The Type A-Negatively Affected cluster and, to a lesser extent, the Type D cluster, displayed the worst profile: namely higher total cardiovascular risk index, physical inactivity, higher anxiety and depression, and lower self-esteem, optimism, and health status. Identifying combined personality profiles is important in clinical research and practice in cardiovascular diseases. Practical implications are discussed

    SHARK-NIR, the coronagraphic camera for LBT, moving toward construction

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    SHARK-NIR is one of the two coronagraphic instruments proposed for the Large Binocular Telescope. Together with SHARK-VIS (performing coronagraphic imaging in the visible domain), it will offer the possibility to do binocular observations combining direct imaging, coronagraphic imaging and coronagraphic low resolution spectroscopy in a wide wavelength domain, going from 0.5{\mu}m to 1.7{\mu}m. Additionally, the contemporary usage of LMIRCam, the coronagraphic LBTI NIR camera, working from K to L band, will extend even more the covered wavelength range. In January 2017 SHARK-NIR underwent a successful final design review, which endorsed the instrument for construction and future implementation at LBT. We report here the final design of the instrument, which foresees two intermediate pupil planes and three focal planes to accomodate a certain number of coronagraphic techniques, selected to maximize the instrument contrast at various distances from the star. Exo-Planets search and characterization has been the science case driving the instrument design, but the SOUL upgrade of the LBT AO will increase the instrument performance in the faint end regime, allowing to do galactic (jets and disks) and extra-galactic (AGN and QSO) science on a relatively wide sample of targets, normally not reachable in other similar facilities.Comment: 8 pages, 6 figures, AO4ELT5 conference proceeding

    MAVIS: The adaptive optics module feasibility study

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    The Adaptive Optics Module of MAVIS is a self-contained MCAO module, which delivers a corrected FoV to the postfocal scientific instruments, in the visible. The module aims to exploit the full potential of the ESO VLT UT4 Adaptive Optics Facility, which is composed of the high spatial frequency deformable secondary mirror and the laser guide stars launching and control systems. During the MAVIS Phase A, we evaluated, with the support of simulations and analysis at different levels, the main terms of the error budgets aiming at estimating the realistic AOM performance. After introducing the current opto-mechanical design and AO scheme of the AOM, we here present the standard wavefront error budget and the other budgets, including manufacturing, alignment of the module, thermal behavior and noncommon path aberrations, together with the contribution of the upstream telescope system
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