122 research outputs found

    Creation of blenders in the conservative setting

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    In this work we prove that each C^r conservative diffeomorphism with a pair of hyperbolic periodic points of co-index one can be C^1-approximated by C^r conservative diffeomorphisms having a blender.Comment: 4 figures, 16 figure

    The dynamics of quasi-isometric foliations

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    If the stable, center, and unstable foliations of a partially hyperbolic system are quasi-isometric, the system has Global Product Structure. This result also applies to Anosov systems and to other invariant splittings. If a partially hyperbolic system on a manifold with abelian fundamental group has quasi-isometric stable and unstable foliations, the center foliation is without holonomy. If, further, the system has Global Product Structure, then all center leaves are homeomorphic.Comment: 18 pages, 1 figur

    Phase separation and suppression of critical dynamics at quantum transitions of itinerant magnets: MnSi and (Sr1x_{1-x}Cax_{x})RuO3_{3}

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    Quantum phase transitions (QPTs) have been studied extensively in correlated electron systems. Characterization of magnetism at QPTs has, however, been limited by the volume-integrated feature of neutron and magnetization measurements and by pressure uncertainties in NMR studies using powderized specimens. Overcoming these limitations, we performed muon spin relaxation (μ\muSR) measurements which have a unique sensitivity to volume fractions of magnetically ordered and paramagnetic regions, and studied QPTs from itinerant heli/ferro magnet to paramagnet in MnSi (single-crystal; varying pressure) and (Sr1x_{1-x}Cax_{x})RuO3_{3} (ceramic specimens; varying xx). Our results provide the first clear evidence that both cases are associated with spontaneous phase separation and suppression of dynamic critical behavior, revealed a slow but dynamic character of the ``partial order'' diffuse spin correlations in MnSi above the critical pressure, and, combined with other known results in heavy-fermion and cuprate systems, suggest a possibility that a majority of QPTs involve first-order transitions and/or phase separation.Comment: 11 pages, 4 figures, 21 authors, to appear in Nature Physic

    Genome-Wide Association Study of Plasma Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in the InCHIANTI Study

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    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have a role in many physiological processes, including energy production, modulation of inflammation, and maintenance of cell membrane integrity. High plasma PUFA concentrations have been shown to have beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease and mortality. To identify genetic contributors of plasma PUFA concentrations, we conducted a genome-wide association study of plasma levels of six omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in 1,075 participants in the InCHIANTI study on aging. The strongest evidence for association was observed in a region of chromosome 11 that encodes three fatty acid desaturases (FADS1, FADS2, FADS3). The SNP with the most significant association was rs174537 near FADS1 in the analysis of arachidonic acid (AA; p = 5.95×10−46). Minor allele homozygotes had lower AA compared to the major allele homozygotes and rs174537 accounted for 18.6% of the additive variance in AA concentrations. This SNP was also associated with levels of eicosadienoic acid (EDA; p = 6.78×10−9) and eicosapentanoic acid (EPA; p = 1.07×10−14). Participants carrying the allele associated with higher AA, EDA, and EPA also had higher low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C) and total cholesterol levels. Outside the FADS gene cluster, the strongest region of association mapped to chromosome 6 in the region encoding an elongase of very long fatty acids 2 (ELOVL2). In this region, association was observed with EPA (rs953413; p = 1.1×10−6). The effects of rs174537 were confirmed in an independent sample of 1,076 subjects participating in the GOLDN study. The ELOVL2 SNP was associated with docosapentanoic and DHA but not with EPA in GOLDN. These findings show that polymorphisms of genes encoding enzymes in the metabolism of PUFA contribute to plasma concentrations of fatty acids

    Identification of Conserved and HLA Promiscuous DENV3 T-Cell Epitopes

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    Anti-dengue T-cell responses have been implicated in both protection and immunopathology. However, most of the T-cell studies for dengue include few epitopes, with limited knowledge of their inter-serotype variation and the breadth of their human leukocyte antigen (HLA) affinity. In order to expand our knowledge of HLA-restricted dengue epitopes, we screened T-cell responses against 477 overlapping peptides derived from structural and non-structural proteins of the dengue virus serotype 3 (DENV3) by use of HLA class I and II transgenic mice (TgM): A2, A24, B7, DR2, DR3 and DR4. TgM were inoculated with peptides pools and the T-cell immunogenic peptides were identified by ELISPOT. Nine HLA class I and 97 HLA class II novel DENV3 epitopes were identified based on immunogenicity in TgM and their HLA affinity was further confirmed by binding assays analysis. A subset of these epitopes activated memory T-cells from DENV3 immune volunteers and was also capable of priming naïve T-cells, ex vivo, from dengue IgG negative individuals. Analysis of inter- and intra-serotype variation of such an epitope (A02-restricted) allowed us to identify altered peptide ligands not only in DENV3 but also in other DENV serotypes. These studies also characterized the HLA promiscuity of 23 HLA class II epitopes bearing highly conserved sequences, six of which could bind to more than 10 different HLA molecules representing a large percentage of the global population. These epitope data are invaluable to investigate the role of T-cells in dengue immunity/pathogenesis and vaccine design. © 2013 Nascimento et al