61,516 research outputs found

    Operator-Schmidt decomposition of the quantum Fourier transform on C^N1 tensor C^N2

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    Operator-Schmidt decompositions of the quantum Fourier transform on C^N1 tensor C^N2 are computed for all N1, N2 > 1. The decomposition is shown to be completely degenerate when N1 is a factor of N2 and when N1>N2. The first known special case, N1=N2=2^n, was computed by Nielsen in his study of the communication cost of computing the quantum Fourier transform of a collection of qubits equally distributed between two parties. [M. A. Nielsen, PhD Thesis, University of New Mexico (1998), Chapter 6, arXiv:quant-ph/0011036.] More generally, the special case N1=2^n1<2^n2=N2 was computed by Nielsen et. al. in their study of strength measures of quantum operations. [M.A. Nielsen et. al, (accepted for publication in Phys Rev A); arXiv:quant-ph/0208077.] Given the Schmidt decompositions presented here, it follows that in all cases the communication cost of exact computation of the quantum Fourier transform is maximal.Comment: 9 pages, LaTeX 2e; No changes in results. References and acknowledgments added. Changes in presentation added to satisfy referees: expanded introduction, inclusion of ommitted algebraic steps in the appendix, addition of clarifying footnote

    The trumping relation and the structure of the bipartite entangled states

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    The majorization relation has been shown to be useful in classifying which transformations of jointly held quantum states are possible using local operations and classical communication. In some cases, a direct transformation between two states is not possible, but it becomes possible in the presence of another state (known as a catalyst); this situation is described mathematically by the trumping relation, an extension of majorization. The structure of the trumping relation is not nearly as well understood as that of majorization. We give an introduction to this subject and derive some new results. Most notably, we show that the dimension of the required catalyst is in general unbounded; there is no integer kk such that it suffices to consider catalysts of dimension kk or less in determining which states can be catalyzed into a given state. We also show that almost all bipartite entangled states are potentially useful as catalysts.Comment: 7 pages, RevTe

    Continuity bounds for entanglement

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    This note quantifies the continuity properties of entanglement: how much does entanglement vary if we change the entangled quantum state just a little? This question is studied for the pure state entanglement of a bipartite system and for the entanglement of formation of a bipartite system in a mixed state.Comment: 5 pages, submitted to Physical Review A Brief Reports. Minor typo in equation (25) corrected in resubmissio

    Conditions for a Class of Entanglement Transformations

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    Suppose Alice and Bob jointly possess a pure state, |ψ〉. Using local operations on their respective systems and classical communication it may be possible for Alice and Bob to transform |ψ〉 into another joint state |φ〉. This Letter gives necessary and sufficient conditions for this process of entanglement transformation to be possible. These conditions reveal a partial ordering on the entangled states and connect quantum entanglement to the algebraic theory of majorization. As a consequence, we find that there exist essentially different types of entanglement for bipartite quantum systems

    Quantum states far from the energy eigenstates of any local Hamiltonian

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    What quantum states are possible energy eigenstates of a many-body Hamiltonian? Suppose the Hamiltonian is non-trivial, i.e., not a multiple of the identity, and L-local, in the sense of containing interaction terms involving at most L bodies, for some fixed L. We construct quantum states \psi which are ``far away'' from all the eigenstates E of any non-trivial L-local Hamiltonian, in the sense that |\psi-E| is greater than some constant lower bound, independent of the form of the Hamiltonian.Comment: 4 page

    Quantum parallelism of the controlled-NOT operation: an experimental criterion for the evaluation of device performance

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    It is shown that a quantum controlled-NOT gate simultaneously performs the logical functions of three distinct conditional local operations. Each of these local operations can be verified by measuring a corresponding truth table of four local inputs and four local outputs. The quantum parallelism of the gate can then be observed directly in a set of three simple experimental tests, each of which has a clear intuitive interpretation in terms of classical logical operations. Specifically, quantum parallelism is achieved if the average fidelity of the three classical operations exceeds 2/3. It is thus possible to evaluate the essential quantum parallelism of an experimental controlled-NOT gate by testing only three characteristic classical operations performed by the gate.Comment: 6 pages, no figures, added references and discussio

    Toward a more economical cluster state quantum computation

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    We assess the effects of an intrinsic model for imperfections in cluster states by introducing {\it noisy cluster states} and characterizing their role in the one-way model for quantum computation. The action of individual dephasing channels on cluster qubits is also studied. We show that the effect of non-idealities is limited by using small clusters, which requires compact schemes for computation. In light of this, we address an experimentally realizable four-qubit linear cluster which simulates a controlled-{\sf NOT} ({\sf CNOT}).Comment: 4 pages, 2 figures, RevTeX4; proposal for experimental setup include
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