1,089 research outputs found

    Free amino acids of the blood and some organs in hypokinesia

    Get PDF
    The metabolic fund of amino acids of the blood and tissues of rats under hypokinesia was investigated. The content of free amino acids was determined for the liver, kidney, brain, and the skeletal and cardiac muscles after established periods of hypokinesia. It was found that the total content of free amino acids in the experimental animals was, on the average 19 percent lower than in the controls. The results of the quantity of individual compounds indicate that the level of some were reduced while others were increased. It was also found that there was an unequal content of individual amino acids in the different tissues

    Nod1 signaling overcomes resistance of S. pneumoniae to opsonophagocytic killing

    Get PDF
    Airway infection by the Gram-positive pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp) leads to recruitment of neutrophils but limited bacterial killing by these cells. Co-colonization by Sp and a Gram-negative species, Haemophilus influenzae (Hi), provides sufficient stimulus to induce neutrophil and complement-mediated clearance of Sp from the mucosal surface in a murine model. Products from Hi, but not Sp, also promote killing of Sp by ex vivo neutrophil-enriched peritoneal exudate cells. Here we identify the stimulus from Hi as its peptidoglycan. Enhancement of opsonophagocytic killing was facilitated by signaling through nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-1 (Nod1), which is involved in recognition of γ-D-glutamyl-meso-diaminopimelic acid (meso-DAP) contained in cell walls of Hi but not Sp. Neutrophils from mice treated with Hi or compounds containing meso-DAP, including synthetic peptidoglycan fragments, showed increased Sp killing in a Nod1-dependent manner. Moreover, Nod1-/- mice showed reduced Hi-induced clearance of Sp during co-colonization. These observations offer insight into mechanisms of microbial competition and demonstrate the importance of Nod1 in neutrophil-mediated clearance of bacteria in vivo

    Использование спутников для дистанционного зондирования Земли: правовые проблемы и перспективы

    Get PDF
    The subject of the study incorporates the problems and prospects of remote sensing of the Earth, an analysis of the effectiveness of the international legal framework in this area is given in the article.General and special methods of legal analysis were used.The main results of the research include the proof that from a technical point of view, the definition and concept of remote sensing do not cause disagreement among professionals, but it was not possible to achieve consensus on the international legal status of remote sensing. It is not in the main sources of international space law. The Principles of Remote Sensing of 1986 are imperfect and outdated in many respects, although they remain the only universal international document regulating remote sensing, and have not been challenged for more than 30 years. A balance has been established between the interests of states on the main controversial issues, such as the relationship between freedom of space monitoring, state sovereignty and access to remote sensing data.The results are practically significant, as they can serve as the basis for new normative legal acts at the international level, in the long term it is important to further expand cooperation in the field of remote sensing within the UN and other international organizations, conclude regional and bilateral agreements and develop national legislation.The conclusion of the study is that the formation of the legal framework for remote sensing occurs by integrating the norms of "soft laws" into national laws, fixing them in international treaties and, as a consequence, the emergence of norms of customary law and norms of international law.Рассматриваются правовые проблемы и перспективы дистанционного зондирования Земли, дается анализ эффективности международно-правовой базы в этой области. Использовались общие и специальные методы правового анализа. Основные результаты работы заключаются в доказательстве того, что с технической точки зрения определение и концепция дистанционного зондирования не вызывают разногласий среди профессионалов, но достичь единства по международно-правовому статусу дистанционного зондирования не удалось: его нет в основных источниках международного космического права, а Принципы дистанционного зондирования 1986 г. во многих отношениях несовершенны и устарели, хотя и остаются единственным универсальным международным документом, регулирующим дистанционное зондирование, и не оспаривались более 30 лет. Установлен баланс интересов государств по основным спорным вопросам, таким как взаимосвязь между свободой космического мониторинга, государственным суверенитетом и доступом к данным дистанционного зондирования. Результаты практически значимы, так как могут служить основой новых нормативно-правовых актов международного уровня, в долгосрочной перспективе важно и дальше расширять сотрудничество в области дистанционного зондирования в рамках ООН и других международных организаций, заключать региональные и двусторонние соглашения и развивать национальное законодательство. Выводом исследования является положение, что формирование правовой базы дистанционного зондирования происходит путем интеграции норм «мягкого права» в национальные законы, закрепления их в международных договорах и, как следствие, появления норм обычного права и нормы международного права

    Variety of narrow-leaved lupine (<i>Lupinus angustifolius L.</i>) Mezenat

    Get PDF
    The purpose of the study was to create of an early ripening variety of narrow-leaved lupine with a seed and green mass yield above the standard, resistant to unfavorable biotic and abiotic environmental factors in the North-West region of the Russian Federation. As the result of many years of breeding, an early ripening variety of narrow-leaved lupine Metsenat has been developed. In a competitive varietal trial conducted in the conditions of the Leningrad Region, the seed yield of the variety Metsenat averaged 4.3 t/ha in 2015-2017 that was 1.1 t/ha higher than the standard (Kristall), the yield of green hay was 48.4 t/ha (13.9 t/ha higher than the standard). According to the results of the structural analysis of plants, the variety Metsenat was characterized by an increased number of seeds per plant (90.4 pcs.) and a good seeding of the beans (4.4 pcs.). It is a variety of universal use, with a low content of alkaloids (0.0072 %), it is technological, resistant to lodging (7 points), to cracking of beans and shedding of seeds on the vine, resistant to anthracnose (9 points). It is characterized by a rapid growth rate of plants in the initial period of vegetation. In 2018 the Metsenat variety was included into the State Register of Breeding Achievements of the Russian Federation approved for use in agricultural production in 12 regions (Patent No. 9559)

    Wind regime peculiarities in the lower thermosphere in the winter of 1983/84

    Get PDF
    Temporal variations of prevailing winds at 90 to 100 km obtained from measurements carried out in winter 1983 to 1984 at three sites in the USSR and two sites in East Germany are reported. These variations are compared with those of the thermal stratospheric regime. Measurements were carried out using the drifts D2 method (meteor wind radar) and the D1 method (ionospheric drifts). Temporal variations of zonal and meridional prevailing wind components for all the sites are given. Also presented are zonal wind data obtained using the partial reflection wind radar. Wind velocity values were obtained by averaging data recorded at between 105 and 91 km altitude. Wind velocity data averaged in such a way can be related to about the same height interval to which the data obtained by the meteor radar and ionospheric methods at other sites, i.e., the mean height of the meteor zone (about 95 km). The results presented show that there are significant fluctuations about the seasonal course of both zonal and meridional prevailing winds