3,308 research outputs found

    Multiplication of solutions for linear overdetermined systems of partial differential equations

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    A large family of linear, usually overdetermined, systems of partial differential equations that admit a multiplication of solutions, i.e, a bi-linear and commutative mapping on the solution space, is studied. This family of PDE's contains the Cauchy-Riemann equations and the cofactor pair systems, included as special cases. The multiplication provides a method for generating, in a pure algebraic way, large classes of non-trivial solutions that can be constructed by forming convergent power series of trivial solutions.Comment: 27 page

    The methodology of using precedents

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    This paper elucidates the common law doctrine of stare decisis and the methodology of using precedents, including the practice of distinguishing and overruling them

    Dynamics of interlacing peakons (and shockpeakons) in the Geng-Xue equation

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    We consider multipeakon solutions, and to some extent also multishockpeakon solutions, of a coupled two-component integrable PDE found by Geng and Xue as a generalization of Novikov's cubically nonlinear Camassa-Holm type equation. In order to make sense of such solutions, we find it necessary to assume that there are no overlaps, meaning that a peakon or shockpeakon in one component is not allowed to occupy the same position as a peakon or shockpeakon in the other component. Therefore one can distinguish many inequivalent configurations, depending on the order in which the peakons or shockpeakons in the two components appear relative to each other. Here we are in particular interested in the case of interlacing peakon solutions, where the peakons alternatingly occur in one component and in the other. Based on explicit expressions for these solutions in terms of elementary functions, we describe the general features of the dynamics, and in particular the asymptotic large-time behaviour. As far as the positions are concerned, interlacing Geng-Xue peakons display the usual scattering phenomenon where the peakons asymptotically travel with constant velocities, which are all distinct, except that the two fastest peakons will have the same velocity. However, in contrast to many other peakon equations, the amplitudes of the peakons will not in general tend to constant values; instead they grow or decay exponentially. Thus the logarithms of the amplitudes (as functions of time) will asymptotically behave like straight lines, and comparing these lines for large positive and negative times, one observes phase shifts similar to those seen for the positions of the peakons. In addition to these K+K interlacing pure peakon solutions, we also investigate 1+1 shockpeakon solutions, and collisions leading to shock formation in a 2+2 peakon-antipeakon solution.Comment: 59 pages, 6 figures. pdfLaTeX + AMS packages + hyperref + TikZ. Changes in v2: minor typos corrected, reference list updated and enhanced with hyperlink

    Degasperis-Procesi peakons and the discrete cubic string

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    We use an inverse scattering approach to study multi-peakon solutions of the Degasperis-Procesi (DP) equation, an integrable PDE similar to the Camassa-Holm shallow water equation. The spectral problem associated to the DP equation is equivalent under a change of variables to what we call the cubic string problem, which is a third order non-selfadjoint generalization of the well-known equation describing the vibrational modes of an inhomogeneous string attached at its ends. We give two proofs that the eigenvalues of the cubic string are positive and simple; one using scattering properties of DP peakons, and another using the Gantmacher-Krein theory of oscillatory kernels. For the discrete cubic string (analogous to a string consisting of n point masses) we solve explicitly the inverse spectral problem of reconstructing the mass distribution from suitable spectral data, and this leads to explicit formulas for the general n-peakon solution of the DP equation. Central to our study of the inverse problem is a peculiar type of simultaneous rational approximation of the two Weyl functions of the cubic string, similar to classical Pade-Hermite approximation but with lower order of approximation and an additional symmetry condition instead. The results obtained are intriguing and nontrivial generalizations of classical facts from the theory of Stieltjes continued fractions and orthogonal polynomials.Comment: 58 pages, LaTeX with AMS packages, to appear in International Mathematics Research Paper

    Non-interlacing peakon solutions of the Geng-Xue equation

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    The aim of the present paper is to derive explicit formulas for arbitrary peakon solutions of the Geng-Xue equation, a two-component generalization of Novikov's cubically nonlinear Camassa-Holm type equation. By performing limiting procedures on the previosly known formulas for so-called interlacing peakon solutions, where the peakons in the two component occur alternatingly, we turn some of the peakons into zero-amplitude "ghostpeakons", in such a way that the remaining ordinary peakons occur in any desired configuration. We also study the large-time asymptotics of these solutions.Comment: 133 pages, 25 figures. pdfLaTeX + AMS packages + hyperref + Tik

    Separation of variables in quasi-potential systems of bi-cofactor form

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    We perform variable separation in the quasi-potential systems of equations of the form q¨=A1k=A~1k~\ddot{q}=-A^{-1}\nabla k=-\tilde{A}^{-1}\nabla\tilde{k}{}, where AA and A~\tilde{A} are Killing tensors, by embedding these systems into a bi-Hamiltonian chain and by calculating the corresponding Darboux-Nijenhuis coordinates on the symplectic leaves of one of the Hamiltonian structures of the system. We also present examples of the corresponding separation coordinates in two and three dimensions.Comment: LaTex, 30 pages, to appear in J. Phys. A: Math. Ge

    The Canada Day Theorem

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    The Canada Day Theorem is an identity involving sums of k×kk \times k minors of an arbitrary n×nn \times n symmetric matrix. It was discovered as a by-product of the work on so-called peakon solutions of an integrable nonlinear partial differential equation proposed by V. Novikov. Here we present another proof of this theorem, which explains the underlying mechanism in terms of the orbits of a certain abelian group action on the set of all kk-edge matchings of the complete bipartite graph Kn,nK_{n,n}.Comment: 16 pages. pdfLaTeX + AMS packages + TikZ. Fixed a hyperlink problem and a few typo

    Quasi-Lagrangian Systems of Newton Equations

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    Systems of Newton equations of the form q¨=1/2A1(q)k\ddot{q}=-{1/2}A^{-1}(q)\nabla k with an integral of motion quadratic in velocities are studied. These equations generalize the potential case (when A=I, the identity matrix) and they admit a curious quasi-Lagrangian formulation which differs from the standard Lagrange equations by the plus sign between terms. A theory of such quasi-Lagrangian Newton (qLN) systems having two functionally independent integrals of motion is developed with focus on two-dimensional systems. Such systems admit a bi-Hamiltonian formulation and are proved to be completely integrable by embedding into five-dimensional integrable systems. They are characterized by a linear, second-order PDE which we call the fundamental equation. Fundamental equations are classified through linear pencils of matrices associated with qLN systems. The theory is illustrated by two classes of systems: separable potential systems and driven systems. New separation variables for driven systems are found. These variables are based on sets of non-confocal conics. An effective criterion for existence of a qLN formulation of a given system is formulated and applied to dynamical systems of the Henon-Heiles type.Comment: 50 pages including 9 figures. Uses epsfig package. To appear in J. Math. Phy