87 research outputs found

    Extended Quark Potential Model from Random Phase Approximation

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    The quark potential model is extended to include the sea quark excitation using the random phase approximation (RPA). The effective quark interaction preserves the important Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) properties -- chiral symmetry and confinement simultaneously. A primary qualitive analysis shows that the π\pi meson as a well-known typical Goldstone boson and the other mesons made up of valence qqˉq\bar{q} quark pair such as the ρ\rho meson can also be described in this extended quark potential model

    Regeneration of Alveolar Type I and II Cells from Scgb1a1-Expressing Cells following Severe Pulmonary Damage Induced by Bleomycin and Influenza

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    The lung comprises an extensive surface of epithelia constantly exposed to environmental insults. Maintaining the integrity of the alveolar epithelia is critical for lung function and gaseous exchange. However, following severe pulmonary damage, what progenitor cells give rise to alveolar type I and II cells during the regeneration of alveolar epithelia has not been fully determined. In this study, we have investigated this issue by using transgenic mice in which Scgb1a1-expressing cells and their progeny can be genetically labeled with EGFP. We show that following severe alveolar damage induced either by bleomycin or by infection with influenza virus, the majority of the newly generated alveolar type II cells in the damaged parenchyma were labeled with EGFP. A large proportion of EGFP-expressing type I cells were also observed among the type II cells. These findings strongly suggest that Scgb1a1-expressing cells, most likely Clara cells, are a major cell type that gives rise to alveolar type I and II cells during the regeneration of alveolar epithelia in response to severe pulmonary damage in mice..Singapore. National Research FoundationSingapore–MIT Alliance for Research and Technology (Infectious Disease-IRG research programme

    Entire Peroxidation Reaction System of Myeloperoxidase Correlates with Progressive Low-Density Lipoprotein Modifications via Reactive Aldehydes in Atherosclerotic Patients with Hypertension

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    Background/Aims: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to the dysfunction of serum lipoproteins, which triggers lipid metabolism abnormalities in the development of atherosclerosis and hypertension. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is involved in ROS modifications, triggering lipid peroxidation and aldehyde formation. However, the relationship between the entirety of the MPO reaction system and oxidative modification of serum lipoproteins in atherosclerotic patients with hypertension remains unclear. Methods: We measured MPO activity (peroxidation and chlorination), 4-hydroxynonenal-modified low-density lipoprotein (HNE-LDL), malondialdehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein (MDA-LDL), H2O2, reduced glutathione (GSH), and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) using a corresponding commercial kit in atherosclerotic patients with hypertension and healthy participants. We used Spearman’s correlation analysis to investigate the correlation between MPO activity and the levels of these oxidative and anti-oxidative stress-related indices and performed response surface regression to investigate the relationship between the MPO reaction system and the levels of HNE-LDL, MDA-LDL, and the GSH/GSSG ratio. Results: Our results showed no association between the levels of MPO peroxidation activity, MPO chlorination activity, H2O2, and Cl- and those of HNE-LDL, MDA-LDL, GSH, and GSSG, and the GSH/GSSG ratio in healthy participants. In addition, no effects of the peroxidation reaction system of MPO (PRSM) and the chlorination reaction system of MPO (CRSM) on GSH/GSSG were found in this investigation. However, we found that the PRSM rather than the CRSM correlated with progressive low-density lipoprotein (LDL) modifications by HNE-LDL and MDA-LDL in atherosclerotic patients with hypertension. Conclusion: The PRSM rather than the CRSM correlated with progressive LDL modifications via reactive aldehydes in atherosclerotic patients with hypertension. Further investigation is warranted to evaluate whether the PRSM may serve as a potential index for monitoring LDL function in atherosclerosis and hypertension

    A Cellular Pathway Involved in Clara Cell to Alveolar Type II Cell Differentiation after Severe Lung Injury

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    Regeneration of alveolar epithelia following severe pulmonary damage is critical for lung function. We and others have previously shown that Scgb1a1-expressing cells, most likely Clara cells, can give rise to newly generated alveolar type 2 cells (AT2s) in response to severe lung damage induced by either influenza virus infection or bleomycin treatment. In this study, we have investigated cellular pathway underlying the Clara cell to AT2 differentiation. We show that the initial intermediates are bronchiolar epithelial cells that exhibit Clara cell morphology and express Clara cell marker, Scgb1a1, as well as the AT2 cell marker, pro-surfactant protein C (pro-SPC). These cells, referred to as pro-SPC[superscript +] bronchiolar epithelial cells (or SBECs), gradually lose Scgb1a1 expression and give rise to pro-SPC[superscript +] cells in the ring structures in the damaged parenchyma, which appear to differentiate into AT2s via a process sharing some features with that observed during alveolar epithelial development in the embryonic lung. These findings suggest that SBECs are intermediates of Clara cell to AT2 differentiation during the repair of alveolar epithelia following severe pulmonary injury.Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology Center. Infectious Disease Research Grou

    AI is a viable alternative to high throughput screening: a 318-target study

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    : High throughput screening (HTS) is routinely used to identify bioactive small molecules. This requires physical compounds, which limits coverage of accessible chemical space. Computational approaches combined with vast on-demand chemical libraries can access far greater chemical space, provided that the predictive accuracy is sufficient to identify useful molecules. Through the largest and most diverse virtual HTS campaign reported to date, comprising 318 individual projects, we demonstrate that our AtomNet® convolutional neural network successfully finds novel hits across every major therapeutic area and protein class. We address historical limitations of computational screening by demonstrating success for target proteins without known binders, high-quality X-ray crystal structures, or manual cherry-picking of compounds. We show that the molecules selected by the AtomNet® model are novel drug-like scaffolds rather than minor modifications to known bioactive compounds. Our empirical results suggest that computational methods can substantially replace HTS as the first step of small-molecule drug discovery