2,604 research outputs found

    Molecular environments of 51 Planck cold clumps in Orion complex

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    A mapping survey towards 51 Planck cold clumps projected on Orion complex was performed with J=1-0 lines of 12^{12}CO and 13^{13}CO at the 13.7 m telescope of Purple Mountain Observatory. The mean column densities of the Planck gas clumps range from 0.5 to 9.5×1021\times10^{21} cm2^{-2}, with an average value of (2.9±\pm1.9)×1021\times10^{21} cm2^{-2}. While the mean excitation temperatures of these clumps range from 7.4 to 21.1 K, with an average value of 12.1±\pm3.0 K. The averaged three-dimensional velocity dispersion σ3D\sigma_{3D} in these molecular clumps is 0.66±\pm0.24 km s1^{-1}. Most of the clumps have σNT\sigma_{NT} larger than or comparable with σTherm\sigma_{Therm}. The H2_{2} column density of the molecular clumps calculated from molecular lines correlates with the aperture flux at 857 GHz of the dust emission. Through analyzing the distributions of the physical parameters, we suggest turbulent flows can shape the clump structure and dominate their density distribution in large scale, but not affect in small scale due to the local fluctuations. Eighty two dense cores are identified in the molecular clumps. The dense cores have an averaged radius and LTE mass of 0.34±\pm0.14 pc and 3830+5_{-30}^{+5} M_{\sun}, respectively. And structures of low column density cores are more affected by turbulence, while those of high column density cores are more concerned by other factors, especially by gravity. The correlation of the velocity dispersion versus core size is very weak for the dense cores. The dense cores are found most likely gravitationally bounded rather than pressure confined. The relationship between MvirM_{vir} and MLTEM_{LTE} can be well fitted with a power law. The core mass function here is much more flatten than the stellar initial mass function. The lognormal behavior of the core mass distribution is most likely determined by the internal turbulence.Comment: Accepted to The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series (ApJS

    Molecular gas and triggered star formation surrounding Wolf-Rayet stars

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    The environments surrounding nine Wolf-Rayet stars were studied in molecular emission. Expanding shells were detected surrounding these WR stars (see left panels of Figure 1). The average masses and radii of the molecular cores surrounding these WR stars anti-correlate with the WR stellar wind velocities (middle panels of Figure 1), indicating the WR stars has great impact on their environments. The number density of Young Stellar Objects (YSOs) is enhanced in the molecular shells at \sim5 arcmin from the central WR star (lower-right panel of Figure 1). Through detailed studies of the molecular shells and YSOs, we find strong evidences of triggered star formation in the fragmented molecular shells (\cite[Liu et al. 2010]{liu_etal12}Comment: 1 page, IAUS29

    Generalized Cut-Set Bounds for Broadcast Networks

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    A broadcast network is a classical network with all source messages collocated at a single source node. For broadcast networks, the standard cut-set bounds, which are known to be loose in general, are closely related to union as a specific set operation to combine the basic cuts of the network. This paper provides a new set of network coding bounds for general broadcast networks. These bounds combine the basic cuts of the network via a variety of set operations (not just the union) and are established via only the submodularity of Shannon entropy. The tightness of these bounds are demonstrated via applications to combination networks.Comment: 30 pages, 4 figures, submitted to the IEEE Transaction on Information Theor

    New Results on Multiple-Input Multiple-Output Broadcast Channels with Confidential Messages

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    This paper presents two new results on multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) Gaussian broadcast channels with confidential messages. First, the problem of the MIMO Gaussian wiretap channel is revisited. A matrix characterization of the capacity-equivocation region is provided, which extends the previous result on the secrecy capacity of the MIMO Gaussian wiretap channel to the general, possibly imperfect secrecy setting. Next, the problem of MIMO Gaussian broadcast channels with two receivers and three independent messages: a common message intended for both receivers, and two confidential messages each intended for one of the receivers but needing to be kept asymptotically perfectly secret from the other, is considered. A precise characterization of the capacity region is provided, generalizing the previous results which considered only two out of three possible messages.Comment: Submitted to the IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 11 pages, 5 figure
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