34 research outputs found

    A Quantitative Review on Language Model Efficiency Research

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    Language models (LMs) are being scaled and becoming powerful. Improving their efficiency is one of the core research topics in neural information processing systems. Tay et al. (2022) provided a comprehensive overview of efficient Transformers that have become an indispensable staple in the field of NLP. However, in the section of "On Evaluation", they left an open question "which fundamental efficient Transformer one should consider," answered by "still a mystery" because "many research papers select their own benchmarks." Unfortunately, there was not quantitative analysis about the performances of Transformers on any benchmarks. Moreover, state space models (SSMs) have demonstrated their abilities of modeling long-range sequences with non-attention mechanisms, which were not discussed in the prior review. This article makes a meta analysis on the results from a set of papers on efficient Transformers as well as those on SSMs. It provides a quantitative review on LM efficiency research and gives suggestions for future research.Comment: 29 pages, 24 table

    Effects of Leymus chinensis hay and alfalfa hay on growth performance, rumen microbiota, and untargeted metabolomics of meat in lambs

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    ObjectiveThe objective of this study was to compare the effects of Leymus chinensis hay and alfalfa hay as the roughage on the rumen bacterial and the meat metabolomics in lambs.MethodsFourteen male lambs were randomly assigned to two dietary treatments (one group was fed with concentrate and Leymus chinensis hay; another was fed with concentrate and alfalfa hay) with seven replicates per treatment. The feeding experiment lasted for 60 days. Lambs were slaughtered at the end of the feeding experiment. Growth performance, carcass performance, and weights of various viscera were determined. The longissimus dorsi and rumen contents were collected for untargeted metabolomics and 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing analysis, respectively.ResultsThe lambs fed with alfalfa hay showed a significantly increased in average daily gain, carcass weight, dressing percentage, loin-eye area, and kidney weight. Feeding Leymus chinensis hay and alfalfa hay diets resulted in different meat metabolite deposition and rumen bacterial communities in the lambs. The relative abundance of phyla Fibrobacteres, Bacteroidetes, and Spirochaetes were greater in the Leymus Chinensis hay group, while, the relative abundance of Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Fusobacteria, and Verrucomicrobia were greater in the alfalfa hay group. Based on untargeted metabolomics, the main altered metabolic pathways included alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism, D-glutamine and D-glutamate metabolism, phenylalanine metabolism, nitrogen metabolism, and tyrosine metabolism. Several bacteria genera including BF31, Alistipes, Faecalibacterium, Eggerthella, and Anaeroplasma were significantly correlated with growth performance and meat metabolites.ConclusionAlfalfa hay improved growth performance and carcass characteristics in lambs. Leymus chinensis hay and alfalfa hay caused different meat metabolite deposition by modifying the rumen bacterial community. These findings will be beneficial to future forage utilization for sheep growth, carcass performance, and meat quality improvement

    Survey of understanding and awareness of fertility preservation in pediatric patients: Is conversation about fertility preservation unpleasant for pediatric patients?

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    ObjectiveTo verify understanding and awareness of fertility preservation (FP) in pediatric patients undergoing FP treatments.MethodsA questionnaire survey was conducted before and after explanation of fertility issues and FP treatments for patients 6–17 years old who visited or were hospitalized for the purpose of ovarian tissue cryopreservation (OTC) or oocyte cryopreservation (OC), or sperm cryopreservation between October 2018 and April 2022. This study was approved by the institutional review board at St. Marianna University School of Medicine (No. 4123, UMIN000046125).ResultParticipants in the study comprised 36 children (34 girls, 2 boys). Overall mean age was 13.3 ± 3.0 years. The underlying diseases were diverse, with leukemia in 14 patients (38.9%), brain tumor in 4 patients (11.1%). The questionnaire survey before the explanation showed that 19 patients (52.8%) wanted to have children in the future, but 15 (41.7%) were unsure of future wishes to raise children. And most children expressed some degree of understanding of the treatment being planned for the underlying disease (34, 94.4%). Similarly, most children understood that the treatment would affect their fertility (33, 91.7%). When asked if they would like to hear a story about how to become a mother or father after FP which including information of FP, half answered “Don’t mind” (18, 50.0%). After being provided with information about FP treatment, all participants answered that they understood the adverse effects on fertility of treatments for the underlying disease. Regarding FP treatment, 32 children (88.9%) expressed understanding for FP and 26 (72.2%) wished to receive FP. “Fear” and “Pain” and “Costs” were frequently cited as concerns about FP. Following explanations, 33 children (91.7%) answered “Happy I heard the story” and no children answered, “Wish I hadn’t heard the story”. Finally, 28 of the 34 girls (82.4%) underwent OTC and one girl underwent OC.DiscussionThe fact that all patients responded positively to the explanations of FP treatment is very informative. This is considered largely attributable to the patients themselves being involved in the decision-making process for FP.ConclusionsExplanations of FP for children appear valid if age-appropriate explanations are provided

    Transcriptomics and metabolomics analysis reveal the dietary copper deficiency and supplementation effects of liver gene expression and metabolite change in grazing sheep

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    Abstract Background The appropriate mineral nutrients are essential for sheep growth and reproduction. However, traditional grazing sheep often experience mineral nutrient deficiencies, especially copper (Cu), due to inadequate mineral nutrients from natural pastures. Results The results indicated that dietary Cu deficiency and supplementation significantly reduced and elevated liver concentration of Cu, respectively (p < 0.05). FOXO3, PLIN1, ACTN2, and GHRHR were identified as critical genes using the weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA), quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) validation as potential biomarkers for evaluating Cu status in grazing sheep. Combining these critical genes with gene functional enrichment analysis, it was observed that dietary Cu deficiency may impair liver regeneration and compromise ribosomal function. Conversely, dietary Cu supplementation may enhance ribosomal function, promote lipid accumulation, and stimulate growth and metabolism in grazing sheep. Metabolomics analysis indicated that dietary Cu deficiency significantly decreased the abundance of metabolites such as cholic acid (p < 0.05). On the other hand, dietary Cu supplementation significantly increased the abundance of metabolites such as palmitic acid (p < 0.05). Integrative analysis of the transcriptome and metabolome revealed that dietary Cu deficiency may reduce liver lipid metabolism while Cu supplementation may elevate it in grazing sheep. Conclusions The Cu content in diets may have an impact on hepatic lipid metabolism in grazing sheep. These findings provide new insights into the consequences of dietary Cu deficiency and supplementation on sheep liver and can provide valuable guidance for herders to rationalize the use of mineral supplements

    Effects of dietary minerals deficiency and supplementation on different parts of muscle minerals content in grazing Mongolian sheep

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    ObjectiveThe objective of this study was to investigate the impact of dietary deficiency and supplementation of calcium, zinc, copper, cobalt, manganese or selenium on minerals content in the longissimus dorsi (LD), biceps femoris (BF) and triceps brachii (TB) of grazing Mongolian sheep.MethodsWe randomly divided 98 sheep into 7 treatment groups and fed them specific diets for 60 days: a total mineral nutrition diet (LCG), a calcium deficiency diet (LCa), a zinc deficiency diet (LZn), a copper deficiency diet (LCu), a cobalt deficiency diet (LCo), a manganese deficiency diet (LMn) and a selenium deficiency diet (LSe). Then 7 sheep from each group were slaughtered and samples of LD, BF and TB were collected for mineral content analysis. The remaining sheep in each group were subsequently fed specific diets for an additional 41 days: a total mineral nutrition diet (SCG), a calcium supplementation diet (SCa), a zinc supplementation diet (SZn), a copper supplementation diet (SCu), a cobalt supplementation diet (SCo), a manganese supplementation diet (SMn) and a selenium supplementation diet (SSe). Afterward, all sheep were slaughtered, and muscle samples were collected and analyzed.ResultsSignificant findings emerged that LCa decreased sulfur (S) content in BF and increased Ca content in LD and BF, while SCa increased S and Ca content in BF and TB, respectively (P &lt; 0.05). LZn decreased Zn, S, and potassium (K) content in LD and BF, while SZn increased Zn and S content in LD and BF, respectively (P &lt; 0.05). LCu decreased Cu and iron (Fe) content in LD and TB, while SCu increased Fe content in TB (P &lt; 0.05). LCo decreased phosphorus, S, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn content in LD (P &lt; 0.05). LMn decreased Mn content and increased K content in TB, while SMn decreased K content in BF and TB (P &lt; 0.05). LSe and SSe decreased and increased Se content in LD, BF, and TB, respectively (P &lt; 0.05).ConclusionDietary mineral levels have varying effects on lamb meat minerals content. It is important to ensure an adequate intake of minerals in the diet to enhance the mineral nutrition of lamb meat

    Toward High Altitude Airship Ground-Based Boresight Calibration of Hyperspectral Pushbroom Imaging Sensors

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    The complexity of the single linear hyperspectral pushbroom imaging based on a high altitude airship (HAA) without a three-axis stabilized platform is much more than that based on the spaceborne and airborne. Due to the effects of air pressure, temperature and airflow, the large pitch and roll angles tend to appear frequently that create pushbroom images highly characterized with severe geometric distortions. Thus, the in-flight calibration procedure is not appropriate to apply to the single linear pushbroom sensors on HAA having no three-axis stabilized platform. In order to address this problem, a new ground-based boresight calibration method is proposed. Firstly, a coordinate’s transformation model is developed for direct georeferencing (DG) of the linear imaging sensor, and then the linear error equation is derived from it by using the Taylor expansion formula. Secondly, the boresight misalignments are worked out by using iterative least squares method with few ground control points (GCPs) and ground-based side-scanning experiments. The proposed method is demonstrated by three sets of experiments: (i) the stability and reliability of the method is verified through simulation-based experiments; (ii) the boresight calibration is performed using ground-based experiments; and (iii) the validation is done by applying on the orthorectification of the real hyperspectral pushbroom images from a HAA Earth observation payload system developed by our research team—“LanTianHao”. The test results show that the proposed boresight calibration approach significantly improves the quality of georeferencing by reducing the geometric distortions caused by boresight misalignments to the minimum level

    Measuring Urban Poverty Spatial by Remote Sensing and Social Sensing Data: A Fine-Scale Empirical Study from Zhengzhou

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    Urban poverty is a major obstacle to the healthy development of urbanization. Identifying and mapping urban poverty is of great significance to sustainable urban development. Traditional data and methods cannot measure urban poverty at a fine scale. Besides, existing studies often ignore the impact of the built environment and fail to consider the equal importance of poverty indicators. The emerging multi-source big data provide new opportunities for accurately measuring and monitoring urban poverty. This study aims to map urban poverty spatial at a fine scale by using multi-source big data, including social sensing and remote sensing data. The urban core of Zhengzhou is selected as the study area. The characteristics of the community’s living environment are quantified by accessibility, block vitality, per unit rent, public service infrastructure, and socio-economic factors. The urban poverty spatial index (SI) model is constructed by using the multiplier index of the factors. The SOM clustering method is employed to identify urban poverty space based on the developed SI. The performance of the proposed SI model is evaluated at the neighborhood scale. The results show that the urban poverty spatial measurement method based on multi-source big data can capture spatial patterns of typical urban poverty with relatively high accuracy. Compared with the urban poverty space measured based on remote sensing data, it considers the built environment and socio-economic factors in the identification of the inner city poverty space, and avoids being affected by the texture information of the physical surface of the residential area and the external structure of the buildings. Overall, this study can provide a comprehensive, cost-effective, and efficient method for the refined management of urban poverty space and the improvement of built environment quality

    Changes in Soil Rhizobia Diversity and Their Effects on the Symbiotic Efficiency of Soybean Intercropped with Maize

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    It has been established that maize/soybean intercropping can improve nitrogen use efficiency. However, few studies have addressed how maize/soybean intercropping affects nitrogen-fixing bacterial diversity and N fixation efficiency of intercropped soybean. In this study, nitrogen-fixing bacterial communities, N fixation efficiency, and their relationships with soil properties under three nitrogen fertilization application rates (N0 0 kg/ha, N1 40 kg/ha, N2 80 kg/ha) were explored through field experiments. Nitrogen fixation and nitrogen-fixing bacteria diversity were assessed using 15N natural abundance, Illumina high-throughput sequencing, and nifH (nitrogen fixation) gene copies quantification in the rhizosphere soil of intercropped soybean. The results showed that nitrogen application rates significantly decreased the nitrogen-fixing bacteria diversity, nitrogen fixation efficiency, and nifH gene copies in the rhizosphere soil. Nitrogen fixation efficiency, nodule number, and dry weight of intercropped soybean were highest in the N0 treatment, and nitrogen fixation was the highest in the N1 treatment. The nitrogen-fixing efficiency in N0, N1, and N2 treatments increased by 69%, 59%, and 42% and the nodule number of soybean was 10%, 22%, and 21%, respectively, compared with monocultures. The soybean nitrogen-fixing bacteria diversity in intercropping under N0 and N1 treatments significantly increased compared with monocultures. There was a significant positive correlation between soil nifH gene copies and N fixation efficiency and a negative correlation with soil available nitrogen. Bradyrhizobium abundance in soybean rhizosphere soil decreased significantly with the increase in nitrogen application rates and was significantly correlated with soil AN (available nitrogen) and pH content in the soybean rhizosphere. These results help us to understand the mechanisms by which nitrogen use efficiency was improved, and nitrogen fertilizer could be reduced in legume/Gramineae intercropping, which is important to improve the sustainability of agricultural production

    Validation of a New Animal Model of Vulnerable Plaques by Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography In Vivo

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    We aimed to establish a rabbit model of vulnerable plaques (VPs) with the morphology and component characteristics of human VPs and to evaluate the microstructural features of VPs in vivo using intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT). Twelve rabbits underwent endothelial denudation of the carotid artery and consumed a 1% high-cholesterol diet (HCD). They were equally divided into two groups: group A (modified needle injury) and group B (balloon injury). OCT was undertaken thrice before injury as well as 1 h and 12 weeks after injury. The degree of acute artery injury after endothelial denudation was detected by OCT. Twelve weeks after injury, OCT showed that both groups generated VPs which had thin fibrous caps and a large lipid core, whereas plaques in group A had smaller lipid arcs (). Histological findings demonstrated that a larger eccentricity index (EI) () and greater infiltration of macrophages () in group A than in group B. Qualitative and morphometric analyses of plaques showed a significant correlation between histological and OCT measurements. A combination of modified endothelial denudation and an HCD in rabbits produced more eccentric lesions similar to those seen in humans. These data suggest that OCT could be a useful tool for evaluation of the degree of injury and VPs in vivo