28 research outputs found

    Estimation and Inference of FAVAR Models

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    <p>The factor-augmented vector autoregressive (FAVAR) model is now widely used in macroeconomics and finance. In this model, observable and unobservable factors jointly follow a vector autoregressive process, which further drives the comovement of a large number of observable variables. We study the identification restrictions for FAVAR models, and propose a likelihood-based two-step method to estimate the model. The estimation explicitly accounts for factors being partially observed. We then provide an inferential theory for the estimated factors, factor loadings, and the dynamic parameters in the VAR process. We show how and why the limiting distributions are different from the existing results. Supplementary materials for this article are available online.</p

    p38/p53/miR-200a-3p feedback loop promotes oxidative stress-mediated liver cell death

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    <div><p>Although our previous studies have provided evidence that oxidative stress has an essential role in total parenteral nutrition (TPN)-associated liver injury, the mechanisms involved are incompletely understood. Here, we show the existence of crosstalk between the miR-200 family of microRNAs and oxidative stress. The members of the miR-200 family are markedly enhanced in hepatic cells by hydrogen peroxide (H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>) treatment. The upregulation of miR-200-3p in turn modulates the H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>-mediated oxidative stress response by targeting p38╬▒. The enhanced expression of miR-200-3p mimics p38╬▒ deficiency and promotes H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>-induced cell death. Members of the miR-200 family that are known to inhibit the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) are induced by the tumor suppressor p53. Here, we show that p53 phosphorylation at Ser 33 contributes to H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>-induced miR-200s transcription. In addition, we show that p38╬▒ can directly phosphorylate p53 at serine 33 upon H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> exposure. Thus, we suggest that in liver cells, the oxidative stress-induced, p38╬▒-mediated phosphorylation of p53 at Ser33 is essential for the functional regulation of oxidative stress-induced miR-200 transcription by p53. Collectively, our data indicate that the p53-dependent expression of miR-200a-3p promotes cell death by inhibiting a p38/p53/miR-200 feedback loop.</p></div

    Corneal thickness in the central (2-mm diameter), para-central (2 to 5-mm diameter), and peripheral (5 to 6-mm diameter) areas, according to the quartile corneal curvature radius in normal Chinese children (n = 370).

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    <p>Corneal thickness in the central (2-mm diameter), para-central (2 to 5-mm diameter), and peripheral (5 to 6-mm diameter) areas, according to the quartile corneal curvature radius in normal Chinese children (n = 370).</p

    Corneal thickness in the entral (2-mm diameter), para-central (2 to 5-mm diameter), and peripheral (5 to 6-mm diameter) areas according to age interval in 614 normal Chinese children.

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    <p>Corneal thickness in the entral (2-mm diameter), para-central (2 to 5-mm diameter), and peripheral (5 to 6-mm diameter) areas according to age interval in 614 normal Chinese children.</p

    Corneal Thickness Measured by RTVue Fourier Optical Coherence Tomography for 614 Chinese Children (Mean (SD)).

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    <p>The average corneal thickness (SD) for 614 Chinese Children in the left eye (Left) and the right eye (Right). S: Superior, ST: Superior Temporal, ST: Temporal, IT: Inferior Temporal, I: Inferior, IN: Inferior Nasal, N: Nasal, SN: Superior Nasal. SD: Standard Deviation.</p

    Corneal thickness in the central (2-mm diameter), para-central (2 to 5-mm diameter), and peripheral (5 to 6-mm diameter) areas, according to gender in 614 normal Chinese children.

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    <p>Corneal thickness in the central (2-mm diameter), para-central (2 to 5-mm diameter), and peripheral (5 to 6-mm diameter) areas, according to gender in 614 normal Chinese children.</p

    Para-central (2 to 5 mm) and peripheral (5 to 6 mm) corneal thickness in 614 Chinese children.

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    <p>Full line with triangle: CT from the right eye in 2 to 5-mm diameter regions; full line with square: CT from the right eye in 5 to 6-mm diameter regions; dotted line with triangle: CT from the left eye in 2 to 5-mm diameter regions; dotted line with square: CT from the right eye in 5 to 6-mm diameter regions. S: Superior, ST: Superior Temporal, ST: Temporal, IT: Inferior Temporal, I: Inferior, IN: Inferior Nasal, N: Nasal, SN: Superior Nasal.</p

    Scatter plot of the position of minimum corneal thickness in the left eyes of 614 normal Chinese children.

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    <p>Along the verticat axis, a negative number represents the distance inferior to the pupil center, while a positive number represents the distance superior to the pupil center (╬╝m). Along the horizontal axis, a negative number represents the distance temporal to the pupil center, while a positive number represents the distance nasal to the pupil center (╬╝m).</p
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