756 research outputs found

    An Active and Soft Hydrogel Actuator to Stimulate Live Cell Clusters by Self-folding

    Get PDF
    The hydrogels are widely used in various applications, and their successful uses depend on controlling the mechanical properties. In this study, we present an advanced strategy to develop hydrogel actuator designed to stimulate live cell clusters by self-folding. The hydrogel actuator consisting of two layers with different expansion ratios were fabricated to have various curvatures in self-folding. The expansion ratio of the hydrogel tuned with the molecular weight and concentration of gel-forming polymers, and temperature-sensitive molecules in a controlled manner. As a result, the hydrogel actuator could stimulate live cell clusters by compression and tension repeatedly, in response to temperature. The cell clusters were compressed in the 0.7-fold decreases of the radius of curvature with 1.0 mm in room temperature, as compared to that of 1.4 mm in 37 degrees C. Interestingly, the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2) in MCF-7 tumor cells exposed by mechanical stimulation was expressed more than in those without stimulation. Overall, this new strategy to prepare the active and soft hydrogel actuator would be actively used in tissue engineering, drug delivery, and micro-scale actuators


    Get PDF
    The purpose of this study was to test proprioception perception and compare between collegiate golfers and non-golfers using tilting platform. Sixteen male and fourteen female golfers and fifteen male and thirteen non-golfers were participated. All participants were performed perception test on the tilting platform. Frequency analysis and independent t-test were performed using SPSS 24.0. Alpha set at .05. Most participants were perceived from 1° to 2° of slopes and perceived left-right (target direction) slope than forward-backward slope. Repeated practice such as walking on the uneven ground or standing on sloped ground might help to improve proprioception perception. Further research using a tilting platform will be to develop the training program

    Orthodenticle homeobox 2 is transported to lysosomes by nuclear budding vesicles

    Get PDF
    Transcription factors (TFs) are transported from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and disappear from the nucleus after they regulate gene expression. Here, we discover an unconventional nuclear export of the TF, orthodenticle homeobox 2 (OTX2), in nuclear budding vesicles, which transport OTX2 to the lysosome. We further find that torsin1a (Tor1a) is responsible for scission of the inner nuclear vesicle, which captures OTX2 using the LINC complex. Consistent with this, in cells expressing an ATPase-inactive Tor1aΔE mutant and the LINC (linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton) breaker KASH2, OTX2 accumulated and formed aggregates in the nucleus. Consequently, in the mice expressing Tor1aΔE and KASH2, OTX2 could not be secreted from the choroid plexus for transfer to the visual cortex, leading to failed development of parvalbumin neurons and reduced visual acuity. Together, our results suggest that unconventional nuclear egress and secretion of OTX2 are necessary not only to induce functional changes in recipient cells but also to prevent aggregation in donor cells

    Effect of the glyceryl monooleate-based lyotropic phases on skin permeation using in vitro diffusion and skin imaging

    Get PDF
    AbstractGlyceryl monooleate (GMO) is a polar lipid that can exist in various liquid crystalline phases in the presence of different amounts of water. It is regarded as a permeation enhancer due to its amphiphilic property. Various phases of GMO/solvent system containing sodium fluorescein were prepared to compare permeability using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). GMO was melted in a vial in a water bath heated to 45 °C. Propylene glycol and hexanediol were homogeneously dissolved in the melted GMO. Sodium fluorescein in aqueous solution was diluted to various ratios and thoroughly mixed by an ultrasonic homogenizer. Each GMO/Solvent system with fluorescein was applied onto the epidermal side of excised pig skin and incubated overnight. CLSM was performed to observe how the GMO/solvent system in its different phases affect skin permeability. Cubic and lamellar phase formulations enhanced the fluorescein permeation through the stratum corneum. A solution system had the weakest permeability compared to the other two phases. Due to the amphiphilic nature of GMO, cubic and lamellar phases might reduce the barrier function of stratum corneum which was observed by CLSM as fluorescein accumulated in the dermis. Based on the results, the glyceryl monooleate lyotropic mixtures could be applied to enhance skin permeation in various topical and transdermal formulations