876 research outputs found

    Hyper-accreting black hole as GRB central engine. I: Baryon loading in GRB jets

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    A hyper-accreting stellar-mass black hole has been long speculated as the best candidate of central engine of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Recent rich observations of GRBs by space missions such as Swift and Fermi pose new constraints on GRB central engine models. In this paper, we study the baryon loading processes of a GRB jet launched from a black hole central engine. We consider a relativistic jet powered by ννˉ\nu \bar\nu-annihilation or by the Blandford-Znajek (BZ) mechanism. We consider baryon loading from a neutrino-driven wind from a neutrino-cooling-dominated accretion flow. For a magnetically dominated BZ jet, we consider neutron-drifting from the magnetic wall surrounding the jet and subsequent positron capture and proton-neutron inelastic collisions. The minumim baryon loads in both types of jet are calculated. We find that in both cases, a more luminous jet tends to be more baryon poor. A neutrino-driven "fireball" is typically "dirtier" than a magnetically dominated jet, while a magnetically dominated jet can be much cleaner. Both models have the right scaling to interpret the empirical ΓLiso\Gamma-L_{\rm iso} relation discovered recently. Since some neutrino-driven jets have too much baryon loading as compared with the data, we suggest that at least a good fraction of GRBs should have a magnetically dominated central engine.Comment: 9 pages, 2 figures; Accepted for publication in Ap

    Episodic jet power extracted from a spinning black hole surrounded by a neutrino-dominated accretion flow in gamma-ray bursts

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    It was suggested that the relativistic jets in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are powered via the Blandford-Znajek (BZ) mechanism or the annihilation of neutrinos and anti-neutrinos from a neutrino cooling-dominated accretion flow (NDAF). The advection and diffusion of the large-scale magnetic field of a NDAF is calculated, and the external magnetic field is found to be dragged inward efficiently by the accretion flow for a typical magnetic Prandtl number P_m=1. The maximal BZ jet power can be ~10^53-10^54 erg/sec for an extreme Kerr black hole, if an external magnetic field with 10^14 Gauss is advected by the NDAF. This is roughly consistent with the field strength of the disk formed after a tidal disrupted magnetar. The accretion flow near the black hole horizon is arrested by the magnetic field if the accretion rate is below than a critical value for a given external field. The arrested accretion flow fails to drag the field inward and the field strength decays, and then the accretion re-starts, which leads to oscillating accretion. The typical timescale of such episodic accretion is in an order of one second. This can qualitatively explain the observed oscillation in the soft extend emission of short-type GRBs.Comment: 8 pages, to appear in ApJ, references update

    Statistical Properties of Multiple Optical Emission Components in Gamma-Ray Bursts and Implications

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    Well-sampled optical lightcurves of 146 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are complied from the literature. Multiple optical emission components are extracted with power-law function fits to these lightcurves. We present a systematical analysis for statistical properties and their relations to prompt gamma-ray emission and X-ray afterglow for each component. We show that peak luminosity in the prompt and late flares are correlated and the evolution of the peak luminosity may signal the evolution of the accretion rate. No tight correlation between the shallow decay phase/plateau and prompt gamma-ray emission is found. Assuming that they are due to a long-lasting wind injected by a compact object, we show that the injected behavior favors the scenarios of a long-lasting wind after the main burst episode. The peak luminosity of the afterglow onset is tightly correlated with Eiso, and it is dimmer as peaking later. Assuming that the onset bump is due to the fireball deceleration by the external medium, we examine the Gamma_0-Eiso relation and find that it is confirmed with the current sample. Optical re-brightening is observed in 30 GRBs in our sample. It shares the same relation between the width and the peak time as found in the onset bump, but no clear correlation between the peak luminosity and Eiso as observed in the onset bumps is found. Although its peak luminosity also decays with time, the slope is much shallower than that of the onset peak. We get L t^{-1}_{p}$, being consistent with off-axis observations to an expanding external fireball in a wind-like circum medium. The late re-brightening may signal another jet component. Mixing of different emission components may be the reason for the observed chromatic breaks in different energy bands.Comment: 10 pages, 5 figures, to be published by IJMPD (Proceedings of "The Third Galileo - Xu Guangqi meeting", Beijing, October 11-15, 2011