7,422 research outputs found

    International Trade and Institutional Change

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    This paper analyzes the impact of international trade on the quality of institutions, such as contract enforcement, property rights, or investor protection. It presents a model in which institutional differences play two roles: they create rents for some parties within the economy, and they are a source of comparative advantage in trade. Institutional quality is determined in a Grossman-Helpman type lobbying game. When countries share the same technology, there is a race to the top" in institutional quality: irrespective of country characteristics, both trade partners are forced to improve institutions after opening. On the other hand, domestic institutions will not improve in either trading partner when one of the countries has a strong enough technological comparative advantage in the good that relies on institutions. We test these predictions in a sample of 141 countries, by extending the geography-based methodology of Frankel and Romer (1999). Countries whose exogenous geographical characteristics predispose them to exporting in institutionally intensive sectors enjoy significantly higher institutional quality.trade, institutional change

    Hydrodynamic flows of non-Fermi liquids: magnetotransport and bilayer drag

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    We consider a hydrodynamic description of transport for generic two dimensional electron systems that lack Galilean invariance and do not fall into the category of Fermi liquids. We study magnetoresistance and show that it is governed only by the electronic viscosity provided that the wavelength of the underlying disorder potential is large compared to the microscopic equilibration length. We also derive the Coulomb drag transresistance for double-layer non-Fermi liquid systems in the hydrodynamic regime. As an example, we consider frictional drag between two quantum Hall states with half-filled lowest Landau levels, each described by a Fermi surface of composite fermions coupled to a U(1)U(1) gauge field. We contrast our results to prior calculations of drag of Chern-Simons composite particles and place our findings in the context of available experimental data.Comment: 4 pages + references + supplementary information, 1 figur

    Brownian scattering of a spinon in a Luttinger liquid

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    We consider strongly interacting one-dimensional electron liquids where elementary excitations carry either spin or charge. At small temperatures a spinon created at the bottom of its band scatters off low-energy spin- and charge-excitations and follows the diffusive motion of a Brownian particle in momentum space. We calculate the mobility characterizing these processes, and show that the resulting diffusion coefficient of the spinon is parametrically enhanced at low temperatures compared to that of a mobile impurity in a spinless Luttinger liquid. We briefly discuss that this hints at the relevance of spin in the process of equilibration of strongly interacting one-dimensional electrons, and comment on implications for transport in clean single channel quantum wires