2,504 research outputs found

    Numerical investigation of the effects of icing on fixed and rotary wing aircraft

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    A 2-D multi-element airfoil code was modified to study the effects of icing on the aerodynamic characteristics of high lift systems. In each zone of the flow field, the solver numerically integrates the 2-D compressible Navier-Stokes equations using a time marching scheme. The surface pressure distribution is generated over a GAW 130 airfoil/flap combination for a flap setting of 25 degrees, and an angle of attack equal to 5 degrees, at a freestream Mach number equal to 0.3. A series of calculations were performed to determine the effects of small scale ice build up on the high lift characteristics of this arifoil/flap combination. The appendix summarizes this progress. Joint studies on correlation of a 3-D iced wing code with experimental data reviewed new measured laser Doppler velocimeter data in the separated region behind the leading edge ice shape. A version of the iced wing analysis using the Roe scheme was developed to evaluate the poor correlation between the computed and measured velocities in the separated region. Work on the extension of the wing-alone analysis to wing body configuration began with modifications to the 3-D iced wing analyses to accept externally generated grids and multi-block grids

    Development of iterative techniques for the solution of unsteady compressible viscous flows

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    During the past two decades, there has been significant progress in the field of numerical simulation of unsteady compressible viscous flows. At present, a variety of solution techniques exist such as the transonic small disturbance analyses (TSD), transonic full potential equation-based methods, unsteady Euler solvers, and unsteady Navier-Stokes solvers. These advances have been made possible by developments in three areas: (1) improved numerical algorithms; (2) automation of body-fitted grid generation schemes; and (3) advanced computer architectures with vector processing and massively parallel processing features. In this work, the GMRES scheme has been considered as a candidate for acceleration of a Newton iteration time marching scheme for unsteady 2-D and 3-D compressible viscous flow calculation; from preliminary calculations, this will provide up to a 65 percent reduction in the computer time requirements over the existing class of explicit and implicit time marching schemes. The proposed method has ben tested on structured grids, but is flexible enough for extension to unstructured grids. The described scheme has been tested only on the current generation of vector processor architecture of the Cray Y/MP class, but should be suitable for adaptation to massively parallel machines

    Simulation of unsteady rotational flow over propfan configuration

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    During the past decade, aircraft engine manufacturers and scientists at NASA have worked on extending the high propulsive efficiency of a classical propeller to higher cruise Mach numbers. The resulting configurations use highly swept twisted and very thin blades to delay the drag divergence Mach number. Unfortunately, these blades are also susceptible to aeroelastic instabilities. This was observed for some advanced propeller configurations in wind tunnel tests at NASA Lewis Research Center, where the blades fluttered at cruise speeds. To address this problem and to understand the flow phenomena and the solid fluid interaction involved, a research effort was initiated at Georgia Institute of Technology in 1986, under the support of the Structural Dynamics Branch of the NASA Lewis Research Center. The objectives of this study are: (1) the development of solution procedures and computer codes capable of predicting the aeroelastic characteristics of modern single and counter-rotation propellers; and (2) the use of these solution procedures to understand physical phenomena such as stall flutter, transonic flutter, and divergence

    Studies of unsteady viscous flows using a two-equation model of turbulence

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    A two equation model of turbulence, based on the turbulent kinetic energy and energy dissipation, suitable for prediction of unsteady viscous flows, was developed. Also, the performance of the two equation model was compared with simpler algebraic models such as the Baldwin-Lomax two layer eddy viscosity model, and a model by Johnson and King which accounts for upstream history of the turbulent kinetic energy. A brief discussion of this study is given

    Evaluation of three turbulence models for the prediction of steady and unsteady airloads

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    Two dimensional quasi-three dimensional Navier-Stokes solvers were used to predict the static and dynamic airload characteristics of airfoils. The following three turbulence models were used: the Baldwin-Lomax algebraic model, the Johnson-King ODE model for maximum turbulent shear stress, and a two equation k-e model with law-of-the-wall boundary conditions. It was found that in attached flow the three models have good agreement with experimental data. In unsteady separated flows, these models give only a fair correlation with experimental data

    Analysis of viscous transonic flow over airfoil sections

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    A full Navier-Stokes solver has been used to model transonic flow over three airfoil sections. The method uses a two-dimensional, implicit, conservative finite difference scheme for solving the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. Results are presented as prescribed for the Viscous Transonic Airfoil Workshop to be held at the AIAA 25th Aerospace Sciences Meeting. The NACA 0012, RAE 2822 and Jones airfoils have been investigated for both attached and separated transonic flows. Predictions for pressure distributions, loads, skin friction coefficients, boundary layer displacement thickness and velocity profiles are included and compared with experimental data when possible. Overall, the results are in good agreement with experimental data

    Application of Navier-Stokes analysis to stall flutter

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    A solution procedure was developed to investigate the two-dimensional, one- or two-dimensional flutter characteristics of arbitrary airfoils. This procedure requires a simultaneous integration in time of the solid and fluid equations of motion. The fluid equations of motion are the unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations, solved in a body-fitted moving coordinate system using an approximate factorization scheme. The solid equations of motion are integrated in time using an Euler implicit scheme. Flutter is said to occur if small disturbances imposed on the airfoil attitude lead to divergent oscillatory motions at subsequent times. The flutter characteristics of airfoils in subsonic speed at high angles of attack and airfoils in high subsonic and transonic speeds at low angles of attack are investigated. The stall flutter characteristics are also predicted using the same procedure

    Smart Meter Privacy: A Utility-Privacy Framework

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    End-user privacy in smart meter measurements is a well-known challenge in the smart grid. The solutions offered thus far have been tied to specific technologies such as batteries or assumptions on data usage. Existing solutions have also not quantified the loss of benefit (utility) that results from any such privacy-preserving approach. Using tools from information theory, a new framework is presented that abstracts both the privacy and the utility requirements of smart meter data. This leads to a novel privacy-utility tradeoff problem with minimal assumptions that is tractable. Specifically for a stationary Gaussian Markov model of the electricity load, it is shown that the optimal utility-and-privacy preserving solution requires filtering out frequency components that are low in power, and this approach appears to encompass most of the proposed privacy approaches.Comment: Accepted for publication and presentation at the IEEE SmartGridComm. 201

    State Power and Record-Keeping: the History of Individualized Surveillance in the United States, 1790-1935

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    This dissertation charts the emergence of individualized record-keeping in the United States by tracing the history of criminal identification records and the invention of statistically-based identification systems, which the state applied to the population in general. The dissertation ties the invention of these individualized record-keeping systems to the development of a state surveillance capacity and its need for fixed, official identities. The dissertation situates this investigation in the history of writing and argues that to understand the roots of writing\u27s power in contemporary society, essentialist assertions about writing\u27s utility and superiority must be replaced with investigations of how writing was transformed into a critical source of state power. Of particular interest here is how the construction of centralized, state-administered records extended and elevated the state\u27s organizational memory. The dissertation starts with a detailed examination of the earliest US reform prison where the link between individual identities and state surveillance was first forged. It continues with an analysis of the emergence of state identification practices from local into national arenas that focuses on the appearance of practices associated with preventive policing in the mid-1800s. The dissertation then describes the invention and application of statistically-based identification methods, including criminal anthropometry and fingerprinting. These statistical methods could be applied reliably to large populations and thus allowed the state to expand its identification interests beyond criminals to the population at large. The dissertation closes with a description of the construction of the US national fingerprint system. In describing each of these phases, the dissertation analyzes both the motives which inspired proponents of improved identification systems and the actions they took to invent, refine, and deploy new methods to serve those motives. This analysis locates the power of writing in complex record-keeping practices, usually invisible because so commonplace, and re-casts state record-keeping systems from by-products of pragmatic bureaucratic activity into intentionally created, carefully fostered reservoirs of state power

    Numerical solution of three-dimensional incompressible unsteady viscous flows

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    Issued as Semi-annual progress reports [nos. 1-7], and Final report, Project E-16-61
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