260 research outputs found

    Rastlinska vrstna diverziteta izbranih dobovih in gradnovih gozdov v Sloveniji

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    In Slovenia, the plant species diversity on 225 research plots dominated by pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) and by sessile oak (Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl.) has been analysed. Plots of Q. robur are located in five, andplots of Q. petraea in four semi-natural managed forest complexes. In the tree layer, 28 species were found beside the dominant two oak species, with Carpinus betulus L., Picea abies (L.) Karst., Quercus cerris L. and Fagus sylvatica L. having significant shares of growing stock. Based on the understorey vegetation (shrub and herb layer, terricolous mosses), the Ddetrended Correspondence Analysis (DdCA) made a clear distinction between plots with dominant Q. robur and those with Q. petraea. The understorey vegetation also proved to be a valuable indicator of the site conditions and of forest management in the past. Based on ordination, lowland pedunculate oak forests of relatively long standing near to natural management have been separated from the pedunculate oak forests where spruce was favoured by the forest management, and from the man-made pedunculate oak stands on primary sites of Q. petraea. DCA clearly differentiated the sessile oak forests in warmer climate of Sub-Mediterranean region, and in warmer meso-sites of Pre-Pannonian region from other sessile oak forests. The main gradients of vegetation structure and of species diversity, as well main ecological gradients in different oak forests were obtained by ordination technique.Na 225 raziskovalnih ploskvah v dobovih (Quercus robur L.) in gradnovih (Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl.) gozdovih smo analizirali rastlinsko vrstno pestrost. Dobove ploskve so postavljene v petih, gradnove pa v ┼ítirih gospodarjenih gozdnih kompleksih. V drevesni plasti preu─Źevanih gozdnih ekosistemov se poleg dominantnih vrst hrasta pojavlja ┼íe 28 vrst, med katerimi so v lesni zalogi bolj zastopani beli gaber (Carpinus betulus L.), smreka (Picea abies (L.) Karst.), cer (Quercus cerris L.) in bukev (Fagus sylvatica L.). Ordinacija DCA (Detrended Correspondence Analysis) je samo na osnovi vrst v pritalnih plasteh vegetacije (grmovna in zeli┼í─Źna plast, na tleh rasto─Źi mahovi) jasno lo─Źila ploskve s prevladujo─Źim dobom od ploskev z gradnom. Vrste pritalnih plasti so dober indikator rasti┼í─Źnih razmer kot tudi gospodarjenja z gozdovi v preteklosti. Nna tej osnovi je ordinacija lo─Źila ni┼żinske dobove gozdove z razmeroma sonaravnim gospodarjenjem v dalj┼íem obdobju od dobovih gozdov, v katerih so v preteklosti pospe┼íevali smreko, in od umetno zasnovanega dobovega gozda na primarnih rasti┼í─Źih gradna. Analiza jelo─Źila tudi gradnov gozd, ki uspeva v toplej┼íem podnebju v submediteranskem obmo─Źju, in gradnov gozd na toplej┼íih rasti┼í─Źih v predpanonskem obmo─Źju od preostalih dveh gradnovih gozdov. Ordinacija raziskovalnih ploskev dobro odseva razlike v floristi─Źni sestavi hrastovih gozdov, nakazuje gradiente pestrosti pritalnih plasti vegetacije in glavne ekolo┼íke gradiente

    Spremljanje pritalne vegetacije

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    Spremljanje pritalne vegetacije : [zgibanka]

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    Influence of site and stand conditions on diversity of soil and vegetation in selected beech and fir-beech forests in the Ko─Źevje region

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    Raziskava pestrosti talnih razmer in vegetacije na Ko─Źevskem je potekala na ┼ítirih raziskovalnih kompleksih. Dva sta bila osnovana v dinarskem jelovo- bukovem gozdu (Omphalodo-Fagetum) na Ko─Źevskem Rogu, dva pa v preddinarskem gorskem bukovem gozdu (Lamio orvalae-Fagetum) in acidofi lnem bukovem gozdu (Blechno-Fagetum) pri Ko─Źevski Reki. Kompleksi so bili sestavljeni iz skupno 11 objektov z razli─Źnimi rasti┼í─Źnimi in sestojnimi razmerami, ti pa iz 60 ploskev. V prvih treh kompleksih na apnencih in dolomitih smo ugotovili ┼íest talnih enot (foli─Źni, liti─Źni, evtri─Źni in rendzi─Źni leptosol, evtri─Źni kambisol, hapli─Źni luvisol) in devet humusnih skupin treh humusnih oblik. V ─Źetrtem kompleksu na nekarbonatnih skrilavih glinovcih in pe┼í─Źenjakih smo odkrili le eno talno enoto (distri─Źni kambisol), zato pa sedem humusnih skupinznotraj treh humusnih oblik. Skupaj smo na ploskvah popisali 165 vi┼íjih rastlin in mahov. Na raziskovalnih ploskvah na apnencih in dolomitih smo v povpre─Źju na┼íli skoraj trikrat ve─Ź vrst kot na skrilavih glinovcih in pe┼í─Źenjakih. V primerjalni analizi izbranih raziskovalnih objektov smo med njimi ugotovili zna─Źilne razlike (npr. odprte sestojne vrzeli vs. sklenjeni sestoji, vrzeli v pragozdnem ostanku vs. umetno oblikovane vrzeli v gospodarskem gozdu, strma skalnata pobo─Źja vs. platoji, vrta─Źe). Specifi ─Źna fl oristi─Źna sestava je predvsem rezultat razli─Źnih sestojnih in rasti┼í─Źnih, ┼íe posebej talnih razmer ter intenzitete gospodarjenja v preteklosti in sedanjosti.In four research complexes in the Ko─Źevje region, the biodiversity of forest soil conditions and vegetation have been studied. Two of them were in Dinaricfi r-beech forest (Omphalodo-Fagetum association) in the area of Ko─Źevski Rog. Two complexes (Predinaric mountain beech forest of Lamio orvalae-Fagetum association and acidophilic beech forest of Blechno-Fagetum association) were selected south of Ko─Źevje, near Ko─Źevska Reka. The complexesconsisted of 11 objects in various site and stand conditions, and these of 60 research plots. In the fi rst three complexes established on limestones and dolomites, six soil units (Folic, Lithic, Eutric and Rendzic Leptosols, Eutric Cambisols and Haplic Luvisols) and nine humus groups of three humus forms were determined. In the forth complex formed on sandstones and claystones, only one soil unit (Dystric Cambisols) but seven humus groups of three humus forms were found. A total of 165 vascular plants and bryophytes were found. On research plots on limestones and dolomites, almost three times higher number of plant species were established than on sandstones and claystones. The analysis shows a signifi cant difference between the selected research objects (e.g. open stand gaps vs. closed foreststand, gaps in virgin forest remnant vs. man-made gaps in managed forest, steep rocky slopes vs. plateaus, sinkholes). The specifi c fl oristic composition is mostly a result of different stand and sites situations, especially soil conditions, and of the past and current forest management

    The current distribution of Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) in Slovenia and predictions for the future

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    V raziskavi smo ugotavljali lesno zalogo robinije (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) in njen dele┼ż v gozdovih Slovenije. Poleg tega smo z uporabo empiri─Źnega modela in scenarijev podnebnih sprememb napovedali njeno pojavljanje in dele┼ż v prihodnost. Robinija je trenutno najbolj pogosta tujerodna drevesna vrsta v na┼íih gozdovih. Sedanja lesna zaloga robinije dosega okoli 0,6 % celotne lesne zaloge na┼íih gozdov. Najpogostej┼ía je v gozdovih GGO Murska Sobota in Kra┼íkega GGO. Ob uresni─Źitvi scenarijev podnebnih sprememb, ki vsi predvidevajo pove─Źanje povpre─Źnih temperatur zraka v prihodnosti, se bo dele┼ż lesne zaloge robinije postopoma ┼íe pove─Źeval na vzhodnem in severovzhodnem ter jugozahodnem delu Slovenije. Ve─Źji dele┼ż lahko pri─Źakujemo tudi v ni┼żinskem in gri─Źevnem delu osrednje Slovenije. Po napovedih modela bi se lahko lesna zaloga robinije do konca stoletja najmanj podvojila glede na dana┼ínje stanje. Ob uresni─Źitvi scenarijev podnebnih sprememb bi se gozdarstvo sre─Źevalo ┼íe z ve─Źjimi te┼żavami, povezanimi s to invazivno tujerodno drevesno vrsto. Ob doslednej┼íem uresni─Źevanju konceptov sonaravnega gozdarstva bomo morali na ─Źim bolj optimalen na─Źin usklajevati med neza┼żelenostjo te invazivne tujerodne vrste in njenimi ┼ítevilnimi koristmi ter interesi lastnikov.In this study, we analyse the growing stock of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) and its share in Slovenian forests. In addition, based on empirical model and climate change scenarios, we predict its distribution and share in the future. Black locust is the commonest non-native tree species in Slovenian forests. The current growing stock of black locust is near 0.6% of the total growing stock of our forests. This tree species has the highest share in forests of the Regional Unit of Murska Sobota and Regional Karst Area Unit (Se┼żana). Should the recent climate change scenarios, which all predict an increase in mean air temperature in the future, proved to be true, the share of the black locust╩╝ growing stock will increase gradually in the eastern, north-eastern and south-western parts of Slovenia. Higher share of this species can be expected also in the lowlands and hilly area of central Slovenia. According to the forecasts of the model, the black locust╩╝s growing stock could at least double in comparison with its present state by the end of the century. In such situation our forestry will be faced with even more difficulties associated with this invasive tree species. Through a more consistent implementation of the concepts of sustainability in forestry, the balance between this invasive alien species, which is less desirable in our forests, and its many benefits and interests of the forest owners needs to be found

    Pestrost mahovnih vrst v gozdnih ekosistemih Slovenije (program intenzivnega spremljanje stanja gozdnih ekosistemov)

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    As part of the Intensive Monitoring Programme (IM) of Forest Ecosystems in Slovenia, the bryophyte flora and vegetation have been studied on 11 IM plots and 64 vegetation sub-plots (10*10 m). On the IM plots, high species diversityof bryophytes has been assessed. The total number of bryophytes was 109among them 82 species belonging to the mosses (Bryophyta) and 27 species to the liverworts (Marchantiophyta). The mean number per plot was 27 species, ranging from 13 species on the Brdo plot to 36 species on the Borovec and Draga plots. The most common moss species are Hypnum cupressiforme, Ctenidium molluscum, Tortella tortuosa, Brachythecium velutinum, Isothecium alopecuroides, Dicranum scoparium, Polytrichum formosum, Fissidens taxifolius,F. dubius (Bryophyta)and liverworts are Radula complanata, Chiloscyphus profundus, Plagiochila porelloides and Metzgeria furcata (Marchantiophyta). Regarding the substrate preference, the opportunistic species that inhabit very different substrates are prevalentand the second main group are bryophytes inhabiting wood material (epiphyte, epixylic species). Using multivariate techniques (cluster analysis, DCA), the bryophytes have proved to be valuable indicator of site conditions (bedrock, surface rockiness, soil type, micro- and regional climate, vegetation) and forest stand conditions (dominant tree species, dead wood).V okviru Programa za intenzivno spremljanje gozdnih ekosistemov oz. Intenzivnimonitoring (IM) v Sloveniji smo na 11 IM ploskvah in 64 pod-ploskvah(10*10 m) preu─Źevali tudi mahovno floro in vegetacijo. Na IM ploskvah smo ugotovili veliko pestrost mahovnih vrst. Skupaj smo popisali 109 vrst, od katerih je bilo 82 listnatih mahov (Bryophyta) in 27 vrst jetrenjakov(Marchantiophyta). V povpre─Źju smo na┼íli 27 vrst na ploskev, v razponu med 13 vrstami na ploskvi Brdo in 36 vrstami na ploskvah Borovec in Draga. Med najpogosteje popisanimi listnatimi mahovi so Hypnum cupressiforme, Ctenidium molluscum, Tortella tortuosa, Brachythecium velutinum, Isothecium alopecuroides, Dicranum scoparium, Polytrichum formosum, Fissidens taxifolius,F. dubius, med jetrenjaki pa Radula complanata, Chiloscyphus profundus, Plagiochila porelloides in Metzgeria furcata. V pogledu vezanosti na dolo─Źeno rastno podlago prevladujejo oportunisti─Źne vrste, ki rastejo na zelo razli─Źnih podlagah. Drugo ve─Źjo skupino sestavljajo mahovi, ki naseljujejo lesnate podlage (epifitne in epiksilne vrste). S pomo─Źjo uporabe multivariatnih tehnik (klastrska analiza, DCA) smo dokazali, da so tudi mahovidober indikator rasti┼í─Źnih razmer (geolo┼íka mati─Źna podlaga, povr┼íinska skalnatost, talni tip, mikro- in regionalna klima, vegetacija) in sestojnih razmer (prevladujo─Źa drevesna vrsta, odmrli les)

    Occurrence of invasive alien plant species in the floodplain forests along the Mura River in Slovenia

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    Background and purpose: The objectives of our study were to identify invasive alien plant species (IAS) in the main Natura 2000 forest habitat types (FHT) along the Mura River in Slovenia, and to estimate their abundance and cover. The aim of our study was to find out a) What kinds of IAS appear in the research forests? b) What is their frequency and cover percentage? c) Are individual IAS more attached to some FHT than others? d) What is the correlation between the cover of IAS and the tree layer cover?Materials and methods: We analysed the fidelity of invasive plant species to individual FHT. The studied FHTs along the Mura River were following: 91E0* (Alluvial forests with Alnus glutinosa and Fraxinus excelsior), 91F0 (Riparian mixed forests of Quercus robur, Ulmus laevis and Ulmus minor, Fraxinus excelsior or Fraxinus angustifolia, along the great rivers) and 91L0 (Illyrian oak-hornbeam forests). Two forest areas of about 600 ha were studied in total.Results: 16 IAS were recorded in studied FHTs. Some species, like Robinia pseudacacia, Impatiens glandulifera, I. parviflora, Fallopia japonica (incl. F. x bohemica), Erigeron annuus, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Amorpha fruticosa, Conyza canadensis and Juncus tenuis occur only in one or two FHTs, while some species can be found in all studied FHTs (like Solidago sp.). We have found that the most threatened forests are those with prevailing Salix alba, Alnus glutinosa, Fraxinus angustifolia and Ulmus laevis, tree species, which grow closest to the river and on the wettest sites.Conclusions: The increasing presence of IAS in the study areas seriously affect natural regeneration, stability, and continuity of floodplain FHTs. Therefore, some measures and guidelines for managing of these forests are suggested in this study.</p

    Visokobarjanska vegetacija v Sloveniji : zdru┼żbe ┼íotnih mahov, ru┼íja in smreke

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    Using Lidar Data to Analyse Sinkhole Characteristics Relevant for Understory Vegetation under Forest Cover\u2014Case Study of a High Karst Area in the Dinaric Mountains

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    In this article, we investigate the potential for detection and characterization of sinkholes under dense forest cover by using airborne laser scanning data. Laser pulse returns from the ground provide important data for the estimation of digital elevation model (DEM), which can be used for further processing. The main objectives of this study were to map and determine the geomorphometric characteristics of a large number of sinkholes and to investigate the correlations between geomorphology and vegetation in areas with such characteristics. The selected study area has very low anthropogenic influences and is particularly suitable for studying undisturbed karst sinkholes. The information extracted from this study regarding the shapes and depths of sinkholes show significant directionality for both orientation of sinkholes and their distribution over the area. Furthermore, significant differences in vegetation diversity and composition occur inside and outside the sinkholes, which indicates their presence has important ecological impacts
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