51 research outputs found

    Non-Hermitian Topological Theory of Finite-Lifetime Quasiparticles: Prediction of Bulk Fermi Arc Due to Exceptional Point

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    We introduce a topological theory to study quasiparticles in interacting and/or disordered many-body systems, which have a finite lifetime due to inelastic and/or elastic scattering. The one-body quasiparticle Hamiltonian includes both the Bloch Hamiltonian of band theory and the self-energy due to interactions, which is non-Hermitian when quasiparticle lifetime is finite. We study the topology of non-Hermitian quasiparticle Hamiltonians in momentum space, whose energy spectrum is complex. The interplay of band structure and quasiparticle lifetime is found to have remarkable consequences in zero- and small-gap systems. In particular, we predict the existence of topological exceptional point and bulk Fermi arc in Dirac materials with two distinct quasiparticle lifetimes.Comment: 5 pages, 3 figure

    Odd-parity superconductivity in the vicinity of inversion symmetry breaking in spin-orbit-coupled systems

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    We study superconductivity in spin-orbit-coupled systems in the vicinity of inversion symmetry breaking. We find that due to the presence of spin-orbit coupling, fluctuations of the incipient parity-breaking order generate an attractive pairing interaction in an odd-parity pairing channel, which competes with the s-wave pairing. We show that applying a Zeeman field suppresses the s-wave pairing and promotes the odd-parity superconducting state. Our work provides a new mechanism for odd-parity pairing and opens a route to novel topological superconductivity.Comment: 5 pages, 4 pages of supplemental material

    Superconductivity near a ferroelectric quantum critical point in ultralow-density Dirac materials

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    The experimental observation of superconductivity in doped semimetals and semiconductors, where the Fermi energy is comparable to or smaller than the characteristic phonon frequencies, is not captured by the conventional theory. In this paper, we propose a mechanism for superconductivity in ultralow-density three-dimensional Dirac materials based on the proximity to a ferroelectric quantum critical point. We derive a low-energy theory that takes into account both the strong Coulomb interaction and the direct coupling between the electrons and the soft phonon modes. We show that the Coulomb repulsion is strongly screened by the lattice polarization near the critical point even in the case of vanishing carrier density. Using a renormalization group analysis, we demonstrate that the effective electron-electron interaction is dominantly mediated by the transverse phonon mode. We find that the system generically flows towards strong electron-phonon coupling. Hence, we propose a new mechanism to simultaneously produce an attractive interaction and suppress strong Coulomb repulsion, which does not require retardation. For comparison, we perform same analysis for covalent crystals, where lattice polarization is negligible. We obtain qualitatively similar results, though the screening of the Coulomb repulsion is much weaker. We then apply our results to study superconductivity in the low-density limit. We find strong enhancement of the transition temperature upon approaching the quantum critical point. Finally, we also discuss scenarios to realize a topological pp-wave superconducting state in covalent crystals close to the critical point

    Energy relaxation rate and its mesoscopic fluctuations in quantum dots

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    We analyze the applicability of the Fermi-golden-rule description of quasiparticle relaxation in a closed diffusive quantum dot with electron-electron interaction. Assuming that single-particle levels are already resolved but the initial stage of quasiparticle disintegration can still be described by a simple exponential decay, we calculate the average inelastic energy relaxation rate of single-particle excitations and its mesoscopic fluctuations. The smallness of mesoscopic fluctuations can then be used as a criterion for the validity of the Fermi-golden-rule description. Technically, we implement the real-space Keldysh diagram technique, handling correlations in the quasi-discrete spectrum non-perturbatively by means of the non-linear supersymmetric sigma model. The unitary symmetry class is considered for simplicity. Our approach is complementary to the lattice-model analysis of Fock space: thought we are not able to describe many-body localization, we derive the exact lowest-order expression for mesoscopic fluctuations of the relaxation rate, making no assumptions on the matrix elements of the interaction. It is shown that for the quasiparticle with the energy ε\varepsilon on top of the thermal state with the temperature TT, fluctuations of its energy width become large and the Fermi-golden-rule description breaks down at max{ε,T}Δg\max\{\varepsilon,T\}\sim\Delta\sqrt{g}, where Δ\Delta is the mean level spacing in the quantum dot, and gg is its dimensionless conductance.Comment: 33 pages, 9 figure

    Interactions Remove the Quantization of the Chiral Photocurrent at Weyl Points.

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    The chiral photocurrent or circular photogalvanic effect (CPGE) is a photocurrent that depends on the sense of circular polarization. In a disorder-free, noninteracting chiral Weyl semimetal, the magnitude of the effect is approximately quantized with a material-independent quantum e^{3}/h^{2} for reasons of band topology. We study the first-order corrections due to the Coulomb and Hubbatrd interactions in a continuum model of a Weyl semimetal in which known corrections from other bands are absent. We find that the inclusion of interactions generically breaks the quantization. The corrections are similar but larger in magnitude than previously studied interaction corrections to the (nontopological) linear optical conductivity of graphene, and have a potentially observable frequency dependence. We conclude that, unlike the quantum Hall effect in gapped phases or the chiral anomaly in field theories, the quantization of the CPGE in Weyl semimetals is not protected but has perturbative corrections in interaction strength

    Ferromagnetic transition in a one-dimensional spin-orbit-coupled metal and its mapping to a critical point in smectic liquid crystals

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    We study the quantum phase transition between a paramagnetic and ferromagnetic metal in the presence of Rashba spin-orbit coupling in one dimension. Using bosonization, we analyze the transition by means of renormalization group, controlled by an ε\varepsilon-expansion around the upper critical dimension of two. We show that the presence of Rashba spin-orbit coupling allows for a new nonlinear term in the bosonized action, which generically leads to a fluctuation driven first-order transition. We further demonstrate that the Euclidean action of this system maps onto a classical smectic-A -- C phase transition in a magnetic field in two dimensions. We show that the smectic transition is second-order and is controlled by a new critical point.Comment: 16 pages, 4 figures, 1 tabl

    Thermal plasmon resonantly enhances electron scattering in Dirac/Weyl semimetals

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    We study the inelastic scattering rate due to the Coulomb interaction in three-dimensional Dirac/Weyl semimetals at finite temperature. We show that the perturbation theory diverges because of the long-range nature of the interaction, hence, thermally induced screening must be taken into account. We demonstrate that the scattering rate has a non-monotonic energy dependence with a sharp peak owing to the resonant decay into thermal plasmons. We also consider the Hubbard interaction for comparison. We show that, in contrast to the Coulomb case, it can be well described by the second-order perturbation theory in a wide energy range.Comment: 5 pages, 1 figure, 1 table, supplemental materia

    Odd-parity superconductors with two-component order parameters: nematic and chiral, full gap and Majorana node

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    Motivated by the recent experiment indicating that superconductivity in the doped topological insulator Cux_xBi2_2Se3_3 has an odd-parity pairing symmetry with rotational symmetry breaking, we study the general class of odd-parity superconductors with two-component order parameters in trigonal and hexagonal crystal systems. In the presence of strong spin-orbit interaction, we find two possible superconducting phases below TcT_c, a time-reversal-breaking (i.e., chiral) phase and an anisotropic (i.e., nematic) phase, and determine their relative energetics from the gap function in momentum space. The nematic superconductor generally has a full quasi-particle gap, whereas the chiral superconductor with a three-dimensional (3D) Fermi surface has point nodes with lifted spin degeneracy, resulting in itinerant Majorana fermions in the bulk and topological Majorana arcs on the surface.Comment: 4+ pages, 2 figures; 20 pages suppl mat + 4 figures; published versio
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