15,837 research outputs found

    How Can Learning & Development be Applied to Support Employees\u27 Changing Career Paths?

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    Employees change their career path for reasons such as passion, opportunities, and interests. Companies need to prepare to support this career transition in order to improve the efficiency of the organizations. One of the most effective ways to support this transition is through learning and development. This year\u27s Global Human Capital Trends survey shows that more than 85 percent of respondents cited learning as important or very important. Yet, more companies than ever report that they are unprepared to meet this challenge [1]. To close gaps between career transition needs and lack of preparation in organizations, HR professionals and learning specialists are being asked to offer better learning platforms and products that meet new expectations of employees for on-demand learning opportunities

    From Physical Motion to ‘Come and Go’: A Spoken Corpus Based Analysis of Kata ‘go’-specific Constructions in Korean

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    I analyze one of the motion verbs in Korean, kata ‘go,’ and its argument structure constructions. The verb shows an extremely high token frequency and its argument structure constructions have been subject to a great degree of variation in terms of its emergent semantics and syntax. However, there have been recurring issues across the previous studies. First, there is the problem of the so-called “written language bias in linguistics” (Linell, 1982), such that most studies on kata have drawn upon mostly invented sentences or written language data. Secondly, previous studies on kata have focused on the verb itself and have made few efforts on examining the construal of kata as it relates to the argument structure constructions in which the verb appears. Considering what has been pointed out so far, on the basis of contemporary Korean spoken data extracted from Sejong Corpus, the current study aims to establish argument structure constructions focusing on the specification of components, i.e. the subject, the oblique phrase containing the suffix, and kata. Argument structure constructions where kata appears and their components are fully specified are called kata-specific constructions. The objective of this study is to outline the alternations of the argument structure constructions in the physical motion domain, and how and to what extent they are inherited by other semantic domains in accordance with semantic extensions. All the semantic domains are argued to be metaphorically or via constructionalization extended from the physical domain. Further, I aim to examine whether the Principle of Maximized Motivation works or not by virtue of two types of cluster analysis. The first one based on binary coding showed that the metaphorical extension and constructionalization starting from the physical motion domain is not limited to the semantic side, but it also influences how and to what extent the allowed argument structure constructions in the physical motion domain are inherited by other semantic domains. This advocates the Principle of Maximized Motivation. However, the second cluster analysis based on relative frequency showed that abstract motion inherits frequency patterns concerning alternations of argument structure constructions from physical motion to the strongest degree, which weakens the principle

    Identification of the Physiological Role of Carbonic Anhydrase Using the Antisense Technique, And, Investigation of Its Transcriptional Regulation in Arabidopsis Thaliana (L.) Heynh.

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    Carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC, catalyzes the interconversion of CO\sb2 and \rm HCO\sb3\sp- in many organisms. The majority of CA activity in C3 leaves is in the chloroplast and expression of the chloroplast CA is regulated by light. To investigate the physiological role of the chloroplast CA, its expression was suppressed by insertion of a CA transgene in the antisense orientation in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynhold. Activity assays and immunoblots show that in five independent lines of antisense transgenic plants CA activity was strongly suppressed. All five independent lines died or grew poorly in the absence of sucrose whereas wild type plants grew well in the same media. Antisense plants exhibited a phenotype comparable to wild type plants on sucrose-free media only when grown in an atmosphere with elevated levels of CO\sb2. The results support the notion that CA facilitates CO\sb2 diffusion from the atmosphere to the chloroplast and clearly show that CA plays a pivotal role in carbon assimilation in C3 plants. In order to investigate the regulation of expression of the chloroplastic CA, a CA gene from Arabidopsis thaliana was cloned, sequenced, and characterized. Sequence analysis of the 5\sp\prime end of the gene encoding the chloroplastic CA revealed the presence of several cis-acting elements previously shown to mediate expression of genes encoding chloroplast proteins. Serial deletions from the 5\sp\prime end of the CA promoter were fused with a reporter gene encoding β\beta-glucuronidase and introduced into Arabidopsis thaliana. Deletion of an AT-rich palindromic sequence, designated AT-1P, resulted in the largest decrease in GUS activity in transgenic plants. However, the presence of only a second AT-rich palindromic sequence, designated TA-1P, upstream of the CAAT box conferred leaf-specific expression. An expression library from Arabidopsis thaliana was screened with a concatemer of AT-1P and yielded a partial clone. A cDNA containing the entire coding sequence was obtained by 5\sp\prime RACE. Conceptual translation of this cDNA reveals a unique protein containing two putative \rm C\sb2/C\sb2 zinc fingers near the N-terminus followed by four putative CCHC zinc fingers

    Prevention Of Mother-To-Child Transmission Of Hiv(pmtct) Efforts In Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa: Lessons From Botswana

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    In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) where mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) continues to be an ongoing problem, scale up of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services remains a priority. Between 2001 and 2012 globally, the 52% decline of new pediatric HIV infection was attributed to the expansion of PMTCT services. In December of 2021, the World Health Organization (WHO) announced that Botswana was certified as having attained the silver-tier status in the elimination of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, because it had successfully reduced the MTCT rate to less than 5%, had provided antenatal care (ANC) and antiretroviral therapy (ART) to over 90% of pregnant women, and met the threshold of \u3c 500 HIV cases per 1000,000 live births. This was a significant achievement as Botswana was the first high-burden country to be certified as having achieved this milestone. Hence, Botswana’s journey towards elimination of MTCT can help inform and guide decisions surrounding PMTCT program implementation for other SSA countries. The South African province of KwaZulu-Natal may particularly benefit from such knowledge transfer as it has one of the highest prevalence of HIV in the world at 20.6%. The overall objective of this paper is to conduct a case study on Botswana’s PMTCT implementation efforts to identify lessons learned from Botswana’s success with its PMTCT implementation to improve PMTCT services in KwaZulu-Natal. The two primary aims were to: (1) conduct a scoping review to understand Botswana’s journey towards elimination of mother to child transmission of HIV and (2) to identify lessons learned from Botswana to apply to KwaZulu-Natal. The majority of selected papers about Botswana’s PMTCT programs emphasized the integration of PMTCT into the broader healthcare system, ANC attendance, HIV testing coverage, infant feeding practices for breastfeeding among HIV-positive women, and targeted counseling and educational outreach efforts. These strategies can be adapted and applied to regions such as KwaZulu-Natal to reduce the performance gap for PMTCT for especially adolescent and young women. Future research exploring the specific structural and cultural barriers to antenatal attendance and health literacy will be important in maximizing program effectiveness to ensure adherence to the cascade of care. Accurate empirical evidence on the impact of PMTCT integration will guide future evidence-based interventions to eliminate MTCT in KwaZulu-Natal

    Numerical Sensitivity Tests of Volatile Organic Compounds Emission to PM2.5 Formation during Heat Wave Period in 2018 in Two Southeast Korean Cities

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    A record-breaking severe heat wave was recorded in southeast Korea from 11 July to 15 August 2018, and the numerical sensitivity simulations of volatile organic compound (VOC) to secondarily generated particulate matter with diameter of less than 2.5 mu m (PM2.5) concentrations were studied in the Busan and Ulsan metropolitan areas in southeast Korea. A weather research and forecasting (WRF) model coupled with chemistry (WRF-Chem) was employed, and we carried out VOC emission sensitivity simulations to investigate variations in PM2.5 concentrations during the heat wave period that occurred from 11 July to 15 August 2018. In our study, when anthropogenic VOC emissions from the Comprehensive Regional Emissions Inventory for Atmospheric Transport Experiment-2015 (CREATE-2015) inventory were increased by approximately a factor of five in southeast Korea, a better agreement with observations of PM2.5 mass concentrations was simulated, implying an underestimation of anthropogenic VOC emissions over southeast Korea. The simulated secondary organic aerosol (SOA) fraction, in particular, showed greater dominance during high temperature periods such as 19-21 July, 2018, with the SOA fractions of 42.3% (in Busan) and 34.3% (in Ulsan) among a sub-total of seven inorganic and organic components. This is considerably higher than observed annual mean organic carbon (OC) fraction (28.4 +/- 4%) among seven components, indicating the enhancement of secondary organic aerosols induced by photochemical reactions during the heat wave period in both metropolitan areas. The PM2.5 to PM10 ratios were 0.69 and 0.74, on average, during the study period in the two cities. These were also significantly higher than the typical range in those cities, which was 0.5-0.6 in 2018. Our simulations implied that extremely high temperatures with no precipitation are significantly important to the secondary generation of PM2.5 with higher secondary organic aerosol fraction via photochemical reactions in southeastern Korean cities. Other possible relationships between anthropogenic VOC emissions and temperature during the heat wave episode are also discussed in this study