12 research outputs found

    Effect of Time Restricted Feeding on Body Weight Metabolic Disease Risk Factors in Adults with Obesity

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    This study investigated the effects of time restricted feeding (TRF) on body weight, metabolic disease risk factors, sleep, and safety in adults with obesity. TRF is a form of intermittent fasting in which individuals eat all their food within a certain window of time each day, and water fast for the remaining hours of the day. Obese subjects (n = 23) participated in an 8-h time restricted feeding intervention (ad libitum feeding between 10:00 to 18:00 h, water fasting between 18:00 to 10:00 h) for 12 weeks. Results from this study show that 12 weeks of 8-h TRF decreases body weight by ~3%. Subjects were adherent to the prescribed eating window on ~6 days per week, and this level of adherence remained constant throughout the 12-week trial. Our findings also indicate that reducing the daily eating window to 8-h/d decreases caloric intake by ~300 kcal/d, without intentional calorie counting. TRF produced significant reductions in systolic blood pressure, however, other metabolic disease risk parameters (plasma lipids and glucoregulatory factors) remained unchanged. Sleep quality, timing, duration and insomnia severity remained unchanged after 12 weeks. Our results also suggest that TRF is a safe diet therapy that does not negatively affect eating disorder symptoms, eating behaviors, or measures of overall health such as resting metabolic rate and complete blood count. These preliminary data offer promise for the use of TRF as a safe weight-loss technique in adults with obesity, but longer-term, larger-scale randomized controlled trials will be required before solid conclusions can be reached

    Safety of 8-h time restricted feeding in adults with obesity

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    This study examines the safety of time restricted feeding (TRF; 8-h feeding window/16-h fasting window daily) in obese adults. Twenty-three subjects participated in an 8-h TRF intervention for 12 weeks. Self-reported adverse events, body image perception, complete blood count and disordered eating patterns did not change from baseline to week 12. These findings suggest that consuming food within an 8-h window can safely facilitate weight loss in subjects with obesity.The accepted manuscript in pdf format is listed with the files at the bottom of this page. The presentation of the authors' names and (or) special characters in the title of the manuscript may differ slightly between what is listed on this page and what is listed in the pdf file of the accepted manuscript; that in the pdf file of the accepted manuscript is what was submitted by the author

    Effect of 8-hour time-restricted feeding on sleep quality and duration in adults with obesity

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    This study examined the effects of time restricted feeding (TRF; 8-h feeding window/16-h fasting window daily) on sleep. Obese adults (n = 23) followed 8-h TRF for 12 weeks. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) total score was below 5 at week 1 (4.7 +/- 0.5) and week 12 (4.8 +/- 0.7) indicating good sleep quality throughout the trial. Subjective measures of wake time, bedtime, and sleep duration remained unchanged. Findings from this secondary analysis indicate that TRF does not alter sleep quality or duration in subjects with obesity. Novelty: - This study is the first to show that time restricted feeding (TRF; 8-h feeding window/16-h fasting window daily) does not alter sleep quality or duration in subjects with obesity.The accepted manuscript in pdf format is listed with the files at the bottom of this page. The presentation of the authors' names and (or) special characters in the title of the manuscript may differ slightly between what is listed on this page and what is listed in the pdf file of the accepted manuscript; that in the pdf file of the accepted manuscript is what was submitted by the author

    Replication Data for: Research Methodology and Community Participation

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    The data and supplemental appendix describing the data collection and coding process for the article "Research Methodology and Community Participation: A Decade of Indigenous Social Science Research in Canada," to be published in Canadian Review of Sociology/Revue canadienne de sociologie, 57, 1 (Feburary), 2020. This research was supported by a Knowledge Synthesis Grant (872-2016-0013) from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada. Research assistance was provided by Ben Manshanden and Marrissa Mathews

    Alternate Day Fasting Combined with a Low Carbohydrate Diet: Effect on Sleep Quality, Duration, Insomnia Severity and Risk of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Adults with Obesity

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    Background: Alternate day fasting combined with a low carbohydrate diet (ADF-LC) is an effective weight loss regimen. Whether the weight loss induced by ADF-LC can improve sleep, remains unknown. Objective: This study examined the effect an ADF-LC diet on sleep quality, duration, insomnia severity and the risk of obstructive sleep apnea. Methods: Adults with obesity (n = 31) participated in ADF (600 kcal “fast day”; ad libitum intake “feast day”) with a low-carbohydrate diet (30% carbohydrates, 35% protein, and 35% fat). The 6-month trial consisted of a 3-month weight loss period followed by a 3-month weight maintenance period. Results: Reductions in body weight (−5 ± 1 kg, p < 0.001) and fat mass (−4 ± 1 kg, p < 0.01) were noted during the weight loss period, and these reductions were sustained during the weight maintenance period. Lean mass and visceral fat remained unchanged. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) score indicated poor sleep quality at baseline (6.4 ± 0.7) with no change by month 3 or 6, versus baseline. ISI score indicated subthreshold insomnia at baseline (8.5 ± 1.0), with no change by month 3 or 6, versus baseline. The percent of subjects with high risk of obstructive sleep apnea at baseline was 45%, with no change by month 3 or 6. Wake time, bedtime, and sleep duration remained unchanged. Conclusion: The ADF-LC diet does not impact sleep quality, duration, insomnia severity or the risk of obstructive sleep apnea in adults with obesity

    Protocol for measuring intrahepatic triglyceride content in adults with non-alcohol fatty liver disease

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    Summary: Here, we present a protocol for conducting magnetic resonance imaging proton density fat fraction (MRI-PDFF) to measure intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG) content in adults with non-alcohol fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We describe steps for screening patients for NAFLD, MRI-PDFF scanning, and using MRI-PDFF data to quantify IHTG. This protocol can be repeated sequentially and used in weight loss trials. However, it is limited to patients with NAFLD as it does not assess non-alcoholic steatohepatitis or hepatic fibrosis.For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Ezpeleta et al. (2023).1 : Publisher’s note: Undertaking any experimental protocol requires adherence to local institutional guidelines for laboratory safety and ethics

    Effect of Intermittent Fasting on Reproductive Hormone Levels in Females and Males: A Review of Human Trials

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    Intermittent fasting is a popular diet for weight loss, but concerns have been raised regarding the effects of fasting on the reproductive health of women and men. Accordingly, we conducted this literature review to clarify the effects of fasting on reproductive hormone levels in humans. Our results suggest that intermittent fasting decreases androgen markers (i.e., testosterone and the free androgen index (FAI)) while increasing sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels in premenopausal females with obesity. This effect was more likely to occur when food consumption was confined to earlier in the day (eating all food before 4 pm). In contrast, fasting did not have any effect on estrogen, gonadotropins, or prolactin levels in women. As for men, intermittent fasting reduced testosterone levels in lean, physically active, young males, but it did not affect SHBG concentrations. Interestingly, muscle mass and muscular strength were not negatively affected by these reductions in testosterone. In interpreting these findings, it is important to note that very few studies have been conducted on this topic. Thus, it is difficult to draw solid conclusions at present. From the limited data presented here, it is possible that intermittent fasting may decrease androgen markers in both genders. If this is the case, these results would have varied health implications. On the one hand, fasting may prove to be a valuable tool for treating hyperandrogenism in females with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) by improving menstruation and fertility. On the other hand, fasting may be shown to decrease androgens among males, which could negatively affect metabolic health and libido. More research is warranted to confirm these preliminary findings

    Design of a Remote Time-Restricted Eating and Mindfulness Intervention to Reduce Risk Factors Associated with Early-Onset Colorectal Cancer Development among Young Adults

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    Early-onset colorectal cancer (EOCRC) is defined as a diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) in individuals younger than 50 years of age. While overall CRC rates in the United States (US) decreased between 2001 and 2018, EOCRC rates have increased. This research project aims to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of Time-Restricted Eating (TRE), Mindfulness, or TRE combined with Mindfulness among young to middle-aged adults at risk of EOCRC. Forty-eight participants will be randomly assigned to one of four groups: TRE, Mindfulness, TRE and Mindfulness, or Control. Data on feasibility, adherence, and acceptability will be collected. Measures assessed at baseline and post-intervention will include body weight, body composition, dietary intake, physical activity, sleep behavior, circulating biomarkers, hair cortisol, and the gut microbiome. The effects of the intervention on the following will be examined: (1) acceptability and feasibility; (2) body weight, body composition, and adherence to TRE; (3) circulating metabolic, inflammation, and oxidative stress biomarkers; (4) intestinal inflammation; and (5) the gut microbiome. TRE, combined with Mindfulness, holds promise for stress reduction and weight management among individuals at risk of EOCRC. The results of this pilot study will inform the design and development of larger trials aimed at preventing risk factors associated with EOCRC

    Gender Differences in Coronary Artery Diameter Are Not Related to Body Habitus or Left Ventricular Mass

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    BackgroundSmaller coronary artery diameter portends worse outcomes after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The suggestion that women have smaller coronary artery diameters than men has not been validated by a large-scale study.HypothesisWe sought to confirm a gender difference with respect to coronary artery diameter, even after accounting for body habitus and left ventricular mass (LVM).MethodsFrom 4200 subjects evaluated for cardiovascular disease by computed tomography angiography, we selected 710 subjects (383 males, 327 females) with coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores <100, eliminating patients with artery remodeling. Diameters of the left main (LM), left anterior descending (LAD), left circumflex (CX), and right coronary arteries (RCA), were measured. Measurements were compared using a 2-sample t test and the multiple regression model, accounting for body habitus and LVM.ResultsAfter adjusting for age, race, weight, height, body mass index, body surface index, LVM, and CAC, women have smaller diameters in the LM (males 4.35 mm, females 3.91 mm), LAD (males 3.54 mm, females 3.24 mm), CX (males 3.18, females 2.75 mm), and RCA (males 3.70 mm, females 3.26 mm) (P < 0.001). This difference is not related to body habitus or LVM.ConclusionsGender significantly influences artery diameter of the LM, LAD, CX, and RCA. This may warrant gender specific approaches during PCI and CABG. As neither body habitus nor LVM relate to the difference in coronary artery diameter, our study encourages a search for inherent differences between genders that can account for this difference
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