241 research outputs found

### Calculating Dilepton Rates from Monte Carlo Simulations of Parton Production

To calculate dilepton rates in a Monte Carlo simulation of ultrarelativistic
heavy ion collisions, one usually scales the number of similar QCD processes by
a ratio of the corresponding differential probabilities. We derive the formula
for such a ratio especially for dilepton bremsstrahlung processes. We also
discuss the non-triviality of including higher order corrections to direct
Drell-Yan process. The resultant mass spectra from our Monte Carlo simulation
are consistent with the semi-analytical calculation using dilepton
fragmentation functions.Comment: 14 pages in RevTex, 3 figures in uuencoded files, LBL-3466

### Countering beam divergence effects with focused segmented scintillators for high DQE megavoltage active matrix imagers

The imaging performance of active matrix flat-panel imagers designed for megavoltage imaging (MV AMFPIs) is severely constrained by relatively low x-ray detection efficiency, which leads to a detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of only â€šÃ Âº1%. Previous theoretical and empirical studies by our group have demonstrated the potential for addressing this constraint through the utilization of thick, two-dimensional, segmented scintillators with optically isolated crystals. However, this strategy is constrained by the degradation of high-frequency DQE resulting from spatial resolution loss at locations away from the central beam axis due to oblique incidence of radiation. To address this challenge, segmented scintillators constructed so that the crystals are individually focused toward the radiation source are proposed and theoretically investigated. The study was performed using Monte Carlo simulations of radiation transport to examine the modulation transfer function and DQE of focused segmented scintillators with thicknesses ranging from 5 to 60Â¬â€ mm. The results demonstrate that, independent of scintillator thickness, the introduction of focusing largely restores spatial resolution and DQE performance otherwise lost in thick, unfocused segmented scintillators. For the case of a 60Â¬â€ mm thick BGO scintillator and at a location 20Â¬â€ cm off the central beam axis, use of focusing improves DQE by up to a factor of â€šÃ Âº130 at non-zero spatial frequencies. The results also indicate relatively robust tolerance of such scintillators to positional displacements, of up to 10Â¬â€ cm in the source-to-detector direction and 2Â¬â€ cm in the lateral direction, from their optimal focusing position, which could potentially enhance practical clinical use of focused segmented scintillators in MV AMFPIs.Peer Reviewedhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/98594/1/0031-9155_57_16_5343.pd

### Dosimetric evaluation of Acuros XB Advanced Dose Calculation algorithm in heterogeneous media

<p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>A study was realised to evaluate and determine relative figures of merit of a new algorithm for photon dose calculation when applied to inhomogeneous media.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>The new Acuros XB algorithm implemented in the Varian Eclipse treatment planning system was compared against a Monte Carlo method (VMC++), and the Analytical Anisotropic Algorithm (AAA). The study was carried out in virtual phantoms characterized by simple geometrical structures. An insert of different material and density was included in a phantom built of skeletal-muscle and HU = 0 (setting "A"): Normal Lung (lung, 0.198 g/cm<sup>3</sup>); Light Lung (lung, 0.035 g/cm<sup>3</sup>); Bone (bone, 1.798 g/cm<sup>3</sup>); another phantom (setting "B") was built of adipose material and including thin layers of bone (1.85 g/cm<sup>3</sup>), adipose (0.92 g/cm<sup>3</sup>), cartilage (1.4745 g/cm<sup>3</sup>), air (0.0012 g/cm<sup>3</sup>). Investigations were performed for 6 and 15 MV photon beams, and for a large (13 × 13 cm<sup>2</sup>) and a small (2.8 × 13 cm<sup>2</sup>) field.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Results are provided in terms of depth dose curves, transverse profiles and Gamma analysis (3 mm/3% and 2 mm/2% distance to agreement/dose difference criteria) in planes parallel to the beam central axis; Monte Carlo simulations were assumed as reference. Acuros XB gave an average gamma agreement, with a 3 mm/3% criteria, of 100%, 86% and 100% for Normal Lung, Light Lung and Bone settings, respectively, and dose to medium calculations. The same figures were 86%, 11% and 100% for AAA, where only dose rescaled to water calculations are possible.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>In conclusion, Acuros XB algorithm provides a valid and accurate alternative to Monte Carlo calculations for heterogeneity management.</p

### Automated algorithm for CBCT-based dose calculations of prostate radiotherapy with bilateral hip prostheses

ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE:Cone beam CT (CBCT) images contain more scatter than a conventional CT image and therefore provide inaccurate Hounsfield units (HUs). Consequently, CBCT images cannot be used directly for radiotherapy dose calculation. The aim of this study is to enable dose calculations to be performed with the use of CBCT images taken during radiotherapy and evaluate the necessity of replanning.METHODS:A patient with prostate cancer with bilateral metallic prosthetic hip replacements was imaged using both CT and CBCT. The multilevel threshold (MLT) algorithm was used to categorize pixel values in the CBCT images into segments of homogeneous HU. The variation in HU with position in the CBCT images was taken into consideration. This segmentation method relies on the operator dividing the CBCT data into a set of volumes where the variation in the relationship between pixel values and HUs is small. An automated MLT algorithm was developed to reduce the operator time associated with the process. An intensity-modulated radiation therapy plan was generated from CT images of the patient. The plan was then copied to the segmented CBCT (sCBCT) data sets with identical settings, and the doses were recalculated and compared.RESULTS:Gamma evaluation showed that the percentage of points in the rectum with γ < 1 (3%/3 mm) were 98.7% and 97.7% in the sCBCT using MLT and the automated MLT algorithms, respectively. Compared with the planning CT (pCT) plan, the MLT algorithm showed −0.46% dose difference with 8 h operator time while the automated MLT algorithm showed −1.3%, which are both considered to be clinically acceptable, when using collapsed cone algorithm.CONCLUSION:The segmentation of CBCT images using the method in this study can be used for dose calculation. For a patient with prostate cancer with bilateral hip prostheses and the associated issues with CT imaging, the MLT algorithms achieved a sufficient dose calculation accuracy that is clinically acceptable. The automated MLT algorithm reduced the operator time associated with implementing the MLT algorithm to achieve clinically acceptable accuracy. This saved time makes the automated MLT algorithm superior and easier to implement in the clinical setting.ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE:The MLT algorithm has been extended to the complex example of a patient with bilateral hip prostheses, which with the introduction of automation is feasible for use in adaptive radiotherapy, as an alternative to obtaining a new pCT and reoutlining the structures

### Space-time Structure of Initial Parton Production in Ultrarelativistic Heavy Ion Collisions

The space and time evolution of initial parton production in
ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions is investigated within the framework of
perturbative QCD which includes both initial and final state radiations.
Uncertainty principle is used to relate the life time of a radiating parton to
its virtuality and momentum. The interaction time of each hard or semihard
parton scattering is also taken into account. For central $Au+Au$ collisions at
$\sqrt{s}=200$ GeV, most of the partons are found to be produced within 0.5
fm/c after the total overlap of the two colliding nuclei. The local momentum
distribution is approximately isotropical at that time. The implication on how
to treat correctly the the secondary scattering in an ultimate parton cascading
model is also discussed.Comment: 19 pages in REVTEX with 12 figures in separate uuencoded postscript
files, LBL-3415

### R&D on co-working transport schemes in Geant4

A research and development (R&D) project related to the extension of the
Geant4 toolkit has been recently launched to address fundamental methods in
radiation transport simulation. The project focuses on simulation at different
scales in the same experimental environment; this problem requires new methods
across the current boundaries of condensed-random-walk and discrete transport
schemes. The new developments have been motivated by experimental requirements
in various domains, including nanodosimetry, astronomy and detector
developments for high energy physics applications.Comment: To be published in the Proceedings of the CHEP (Computing in High
Energy Physics) 2009 conferenc

### Perturbative Gluon Shadowing in Heavy Nuclei

We study how much gluon shadowing can be perturbatively generated through the
modified QCD evolution in heavy nuclei. The evolution of small-$x$ gluons is
investigated within the semiclassical approximation. The method of
characteristics is used to evaluate the shadowed distributions in low-$Q$ and
small-$x$ region. In solving the modified evolution equation, we model in
simultaneously fusions from independent constituents and from the same
constituent, both in a proton and in a large loosely bound nucleus of $A\sim
200$. In addition to the actual distributions at small $x$, we study the ratios
of the distributions at an initial scale $Q_0 = 2$ GeV, and show that a strong
nuclear shadowing can follow from the modified QCD evolution.Comment: 9 pages in LATEX with 2 postscript figures in a separate uuencoded
file, LBL-3415

### Monte Carlo investigations of the effect of beam divergence on thick, segmented crystalline scintillators for radiotherapy imaging

The use of thick, segmented scintillators in electronic portal imagers offers the potential for significant improvement in x-ray detection efficiency compared to conventional phosphor screens. Such improvement substantially increases the detective quantum efficiency (DQE), leading to the possibility of achieving soft-tissue visualization at clinically practical (i.e. low) doses using megavoltage (MV) cone-beam computed tomography. While these DQE increases are greatest at zero spatial frequency, they are diminished at higher frequencies as a result of degradation of spatial resolution due to lateral spreading of secondary radiation within the scintillator—an effect that is more pronounced for thicker scintillators. The extent of this spreading is even more accentuated for radiation impinging the scintillator at oblique angles of incidence due to beam divergence. In this paper, Monte Carlo simulations of radiation transport, performed to investigate and quantify the effects of beam divergence on the imaging performance of MV imagers based on two promising scintillators (BGO and CsI:Tl), are reported. In these studies, 10–40 mm thick scintillators, incorporating low-density polymer, or high-density tungsten septal walls, were examined for incident angles corresponding to that encountered at locations up to ~15 cm from the central beam axis (for an imager located 130 cm from a radiotherapy x-ray source). The simulations demonstrate progressively more severe spatial resolution degradation (quantified in terms of the effect on the modulation transfer function) as a function of increasing angle of incidence (as well as of the scintillator thickness). Since the noise power behavior was found to be largely independent of the incident angle, the dependence of the DQE on the incident angle is therefore primarily determined by the spatial resolution. The observed DQE degradation suggests that 10 mm thick scintillators are not strongly affected by beam divergence for detector areas up to ~30 × 30 cm2. For thicker scintillators, the area that is relatively unaffected is significantly reduced, requiring a focused scintillator geometry in order to preserve spatial resolution, and thus DQE.Peer Reviewedhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/85404/1/pmb10_13_006.pd

### Strangeness enhancement in the String Fusion Model Code

String Fusion Model Code results for Pb--Pb central collisions at SPS
energies including the string fusion interaction mechanism are compared to the
last experimental data. Predictions for RHIC energies are also presented. On
the other hand, the evolution of the strangeness enhancement ratio
$E_s=\frac{+4}{3}$ with the energy and with the atomic
number of participant nuclei is discussed.Comment: LaTeX, 19 pages, 4 Postscript figure

### Parton Equilibration in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions

We investigate the processes leading to phase-space equilibration of parton
distributions in nuclear interactions at collider energies. We derive a set of
rate equations describing the chemical equilibration of gluons and quarks
including medium effects on the relevant QCD transport coefficients, and
discuss their consequences for parton equilibration in heavy ion collisions.Comment: 18 pages, 6 Figures appended as uuencoded PostScript files, (no
changes in the previously submitted manuscript), DUKE-TH-93-4

- …