47 research outputs found

    Evaluation of toxicity of the mycotoxin citrinin using yeast ORF DNA microarray and Oligo DNA microarray

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    BACKGROUND: Mycotoxins are fungal secondary metabolites commonly present in feed and food, and are widely regarded as hazardous contaminants. Citrinin, one of the very well known mycotoxins that was first isolated from Penicillium citrinum, is produced by more than 10 kinds of fungi, and is possibly spread all over the world. However, the information on the action mechanism of the toxin is limited. Thus, we investigated the citrinin-induced genomic response for evaluating its toxicity. RESULTS: Citrinin inhibited growth of yeast cells at a concentration higher than 100 ppm. We monitored the citrinin-induced mRNA expression profiles in yeast using the ORF DNA microarray and Oligo DNA microarray, and the expression profiles were compared with those of the other stress-inducing agents. Results obtained from both microarray experiments clustered together, but were different from those of the mycotoxin patulin. The oxidative stress response genes – AADs, FLR1, OYE3, GRE2, and MET17 – were significantly induced. In the functional category, expression of genes involved in "metabolism", "cell rescue, defense and virulence", and "energy" were significantly activated. In the category of "metabolism", genes involved in the glutathione synthesis pathway were activated, and in the category of "cell rescue, defense and virulence", the ABC transporter genes were induced. To alleviate the induced stress, these cells might pump out the citrinin after modification with glutathione. While, the citrinin treatment did not induce the genes involved in the DNA repair. CONCLUSION: Results from both microarray studies suggest that citrinin treatment induced oxidative stress in yeast cells. The genotoxicity was less severe than the patulin, suggesting that citrinin is less toxic than patulin. The reproducibility of the expression profiles was much better with the Oligo DNA microarray. However, the Oligo DNA microarray did not completely overcome cross hybridization

    Analysis of Mechanisms of T-2 Toxin Toxicity Using Yeast DNA Microarrays

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    T-2 toxin is a mycotoxin that belongs to a group of type A tricothecenes found in agricultural products. The cytotoxicity of T-2 toxin was characterized by analysis of the yeast transcriptome upon challenge with T-2 toxin. Interestingly, T-2 toxin-induced yeast gene expression profiles were found to be similar to profiles obtained following cycloheximide treatment. Moreover, T-2 toxin treatment was found to activate facilitators, gluconeogenesis and cell arrest related genes such as mitogen-activated protein kinase genes (FUS3). T-2 toxin attacks the membrane and as a result the membrane transport system was disturbed. A large number of genes are induced to restore the toxicity caused by T-2 toxin. However, the data did not suggest that DNA damage by alkylation (Mag1, a gene 3-methyl-adenine DNA glycosylase, 0.46-fold down regulated), no induction of DNA repair mechanisms such as recombination (RAD26, RAD52 and etc.) and excision repair (RAD7, RAD14, RAD16, RAD23 and etc.). These results suggested that the toxicity of the T-2 toxin was due to the disturbance of the cell membrane of the yeast cell and that T-2 toxin caused mild mutagenesis

    Mutant analyses reveal different functions of fgfr1 in medaka and zebrafish despite conserved ligand–receptor relationships

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    AbstractMedaka (Oryzias latipes) is a small freshwater teleost that provides an excellent developmental genetic model complementary to zebrafish. Our recent mutagenesis screening using medaka identified headfish (hdf) which is characterized by the absence of trunk and tail structures with nearly normal head including the midbrain–hindbrain boundary (MHB). Positional-candidate cloning revealed that the hdf mutation causes a functionally null form of Fgfr1. The fgfr1hdf is thus the first fgf receptor mutant in fish. Although FGF signaling has been implicated in mesoderm induction, mesoderm is induced normally in the fgfr1hdf mutant, but subsequently, mutant embryos fail to maintain the mesoderm, leading to defects in mesoderm derivatives, especially in trunk and tail. Furthermore, we found that morpholino knockdown of medaka fgf8 resulted in a phenotype identical to the fgfr1hdf mutant, suggesting that like its mouse counterpart, Fgf8 is a major ligand for Fgfr1 in medaka early embryogenesis. Intriguingly, Fgf8 and Fgfr1 in zebrafish are also suggested to form a major ligand–receptor pair, but their function is much diverged, as the zebrafish fgfr1 morphant and zebrafish fgf8 mutant acerebellar (ace) only fail to develop the MHB, but develop nearly unaffected trunk and tail. These results provide evidence that teleost fish have evolved divergent functions of Fgf8–Fgfr1 while maintaining the ligand–receptor relationships. Comparative analysis using different fish is thus invaluable for shedding light on evolutionary diversification of gene function

    The duality of abnormal extremals on subriemannian Cartan structures (Theory of singularities of smooth mappings and around it)

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    "Theory of singularities of smooth mappings and around it". November 25~29, 2013. edited by Takashi Nishimura. The papers presented in this volume of RIMS Kôkyûroku Bessatsu are in final form and refereed.A subriemannian manifold (M, D, g) is a differential manifold M equipped with a subbundle D of the tangent bundle TM of M. We emphasize abnormal extremals (abnormal geodesics) in subriemannian geometry and in particular show results of abnormal extremals on Cartan distributions of growth (2, 3, 5). The subriemannian geometry is very important in differential geometry and it is closely related to the control theory

    ミュージアムの地域的価値に関する文献レビュー 〜 文化財の有形無形の地域的貢献を評価する 〜

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