11 research outputs found

    Why Localization Is Necessary as a Business Strategy in Emerging Markets: The Case Comparison of Hyundai and Volkswagen

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    Localization, the process of establishing the most adequate system in the target market according to the given environment to produce the most viable product in the market, can help multinational enterprises (MNE) to better understand the market, and take the most appropriate actions needed. Business strategies in emerging markets must account for the environment’s distinctive characteristics because emerging markets are characterized by underdeveloped institutions, also known as institutional voids. What would be the best strategy to respond to these voids? The primary focus of this article is to investigate how multinational businesses deal with the institutional voids of emerging markets such as the Indian automobile market, and how the different strategies affect the players’ performances. By comparing Hyundai Motors Company and Volkswagen Auto Group’s different strategical approaches, this research demonstrates that better creation of a local value chain and ecosystem leads to better performance in emerging markets. Survival within emerging markets requires thorough market analysis in an institutional context, and rapid response to environmental shifts resulting from institutional voids. Localization can help in both aspects

    Wavelength-Tunable and Water-Stable Cesium–Lead-Based All-Bromide Nanocrystal–Polymer Composite Films Using Ultraviolet-Curable Prepolymer as an Anti-Solvent

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    All-inorganic metal halide perovskite nanocrystals (IPeNCs) have become one of the most promising luminescent materials for next-generation display and lighting technology owing to their excellent color expression ability. However, research on IPeNCs with stable blue emission is limited. In this paper, we report stable blue emissive all-bromide IPeNCs obtained through a modified ligand-assisted reprecipitation method using an ultraviolet (UV)-curable prepolymer as the anti-solvent at a low temperature. We found that the blue emission originates from quantum-confined CsPbBr3 nanoparticles formed together with the colorless wide-bandgap Cs4PbBr6 nanocrystals. When the temperature of the prepolymer was increased from 0 to 50 °C, CsPbBr3 nanoparticles became larger and more crystalline, thereby altering their emission color from blue to green. The synthesized all-bromide blue-emitting IPeNC solution remained stable for over 1 h. It also remained stable when it was mixed with the green-emitting IPeNC solution. By simply exposing the as-synthesized IPeNC–prepolymer solutions to UV light, we formed water-stable composite films that emitted red, green, blue, and white colors. We believe that this synthetic method can be used to develop color-emitting composite materials that are highly suitable for application as the color conversion films of full-color liquid crystal display backlight systems and lighting applications

    Tropomyosin-Related Kinase Fusions in Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors

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    The canonical mutations in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are typically activating mutations in KIT and platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA). GISTs with non-canonical mutations are a heterogeneous group. Here, we examined tropomyosin-related kinase (TRK) fusion in GIST cases without KIT/PDGFRA mutations (KIT/PDGFRA wild-type (WT) GISTs). We retrospectively analyzed patients who were diagnosed with GISTs at the Yonsei Cancer Center, Severance Hospital, between January 1998 and December 2016. Thirty-one patients with KIT/PDGFRA WT GISTs were included in the analysis. TRK expression in tumor samples was assessed by pan-TRK immunohistochemistry (IHC), and the neurotrophic tyrosine receptor kinase (NTRK: the gene encoding TRK) rearrangement was analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). IHC analyses revealed that five cases in this cohort exhibited a weak to moderate TRK expression. NTRK1 fusions were detected in three tumor samples, and two samples harbored NTRK3 fusions. The remaining 26 samples did not harbor NTRK fusions. Two types of NTRK fusions were detected, and the overall NTRK fusion frequency in KIT/PDGFRA WT GIST cases was 16% (5/31). Our data provide insights into the molecular alterations underpinning KIT/PDGFRA WT GISTs. More effort should be devoted to improve methods to identify this distinct disease subtype within the KIT/PDGFRA WT GIST group

    Revising a Personal Genome by Comparing and Combining Data from Two Different Sequencing Platforms

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    <div><p>For the robust practice of genomic medicine, sequencing results must be compatible, regardless of the sequencing technologies and algorithms used. Presently, genome sequencing is still an imprecise science and is complicated by differences in the chemistry, coverage, alignment, and variant-calling algorithms. We identified ∼3.33 million single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and ∼3.62 million SNVs in the SJK genome using SOLiD and Illumina data, respectively. Approximately 3 million SNVs were concordant between the two platforms while 68,532 SNVs were discordant; 219,616 SNVs were SOLiD-specific and 516,080 SNVs were Illumina-specific (<i>i</i>.<i>e</i>., platform-specific). Concordant, discordant, and platform-specific SNVs were further analyzed and characterized. Overall, a large portion of heterozygous SNVs that were discordant with genotyping calls of single nucleotide polymorphism chips were highly confident. Approximately 70% of the platform-specific SNVs were located in regions containing repetitive sequences. Such platform-specificity may arise from differences between platforms, with regard to read length (36 bp and 72 bp vs. 50 bp), insert size (∼100–300 bp vs. ∼1–2 kb), sequencing chemistry (sequencing-by-synthesis using single nucleotides vs. ligation-based sequencing using oligomers), and sequencing quality. When data from the two platforms were merged for variant calling, the proportion of callable regions of the reference genome increased to 99.66%, which was 1.43% higher than the average callability of the two platforms, representing ∼40 million bases. In this study, we compared the differences in sequencing results between two sequencing platforms. Approximately 90% of the SNVs were concordant between the two platforms, yet ∼10% of the SNVs were either discordant or platform-specific, indicating that each platform had its own strengths and weaknesses. When data from the two platforms were merged, both the overall callability of the reference genome and the overall accuracy of the SNVs improved, demonstrating the likelihood that a re-sequenced genome can be revised using complementary data.</p> </div

    Cumulative frequency plot of sequencing depths in heterozygous calls. The sequencing depths of heterozygous calls in the SOLiD data are plotted.

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    <p>The patterns of concordant SNVs that are either chip-concordant or chip-discordant are almost compatible, which explains why the majority of heterozygous concordant SNVs that are chip-concordant are highly confident calls. In contrast, the median of discordant SNVs that are chip-discordant is substantially lower than those of concordant SNVs, which explains why only 25% of them are highly confident calls.</p