2,449 research outputs found

    Phase equilibrium diagram for EAF slag optimization in high alloyed Chromium stainless steelmaking

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    The electric arc furnace (EAF) process for steelmaking of Cr and Ni high alloyed stainless steel grades differs significantly from the steelmaking process of carbon steel due to the special raw materials and generally lower oxygen consumption. The special slag chemistry in the EAF process affects slag foaming and refractory wear characteristics due to an increased content of CrOx. A special slag diagram is presented in order to improve monitoring and control of slag compositions for Cr alloyed heats, with special focus on saturation to MgO periclase and dicalcium silicate C2S in order to minimize MgO losses from the refractory lining and to improve slag refining capability by avoidance of stable C2S. With the same diagram different EAF process strategies can be efficiently monitored, either at elevated CaO and basicity with lower spinel concentration and more liquid process slags near C2S saturation or at lower CaO content and basicity with increased spinel concentration and stiffer slags at MgO saturation but certainly no C2S stability. Examples for three industrial EAFs are given

    Estimation of an Examinee's Ability in the Web-Based Computerized Adaptive Testing Program IRT-CAT

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    We developed a program to estimate an examinee s ability in order to provide freely available access to a web-based computerized adaptive testing (CAT) program. We used PHP and Java Script as the program languages, PostgresSQL as the database management system on an Apache web server and Linux as the operating system. A system which allows for user input and searching within inputted items and creates tests was constructed. We performed an ability estimation on each test based on a Rasch model and 2- or 3-parametric logistic models. Our system provides an algorithm for a web-based CAT, replacing previous personal computer-based ones, and makes it possible to estimate an examinee's ability immediately at the end of test

    Connectivity Analysis of Millimeter-Wave Device-to-Device Networks with Blockage

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    We consider device-to-device (D2D) communications in millimeter-wave (mm Wave) for the future fifth generation (5G) cellular networks. While the mm Wave systems can support multiple D2D pairs simultaneously through beamforming with highly directional antenna arrays, the mm Wave channel is significantly more susceptible to blockage compared to microwave; mm Wave channel studies indicate that if line-of-sight (LoS) paths are blocked, reliable mm Wave communications may not be achieved for high data-rate applications. Therefore, assuming that an outage occurs in the absence of the LoS path between two wireless devices by obstructions, we focus on connectivity of the mm Wave D2D networks. We consider two types of D2D communications: direct and indirect schemes. The connectivity performances of the two schemes are investigated in terms of (i) the probability to achieve a fully connected network FC and (ii) the average number of reliably connected devices . Through analysis and simulation, we show that, as the network size increases, FC and decrease. Also, FC and decrease, when the blockage parameter increases. Moreover, simulation results indicate that the hybrid direct and indirect scheme can improve both FC and up to about 35% compared to the nonhybrid scheme

    Connectivity Analysis of Millimeter-Wave Device-to-Device Networks with Blockage

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    We consider device-to-device (D2D) communications in millimeter-wave (mm Wave) for the future fifth generation (5G) cellular networks. While the mm Wave systems can support multiple D2D pairs simultaneously through beamforming with highly directional antenna arrays, the mm Wave channel is significantly more susceptible to blockage compared to microwave; mm Wave channel studies indicate that if line-of-sight (LoS) paths are blocked, reliable mm Wave communications may not be achieved for high data-rate applications. Therefore, assuming that an outage occurs in the absence of the LoS path between two wireless devices by obstructions, we focus on connectivity of the mm Wave D2D networks. We consider two types of D2D communications: direct and indirect schemes. The connectivity performances of the two schemes are investigated in terms of (i) the probability to achieve a fully connected network PFC and (ii) the average number of reliably connected devices γ. Through analysis and simulation, we show that, as the network size increases, PFC and γ decrease. Also, PFC and γ decrease, when the blockage parameter increases. Moreover, simulation results indicate that the hybrid direct and indirect scheme can improve both PFC and γ up to about 35% compared to the nonhybrid scheme

    Effects of a multi-herbal extract on type 2 diabetes

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>An aqueous extract of multi-hypoglycemic herbs of <it>Panax ginseng </it>C.A.Meyer, <it>Pueraria lobata, Dioscorea batatas Decaisne, Rehmannia glutinosa, Amomum cadamomum Linné, Poncirus fructus </it>and <it>Evodia officinalis </it>was investigated for its anti-diabetic effects in cell and animal models.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>Activities of PPARγ agonist, anti-inflammation, AMPK activator and anti-ER stress were measured in cell models and in <it>db/db </it>mice (a genetic animal model for type 2 diabetes).</p> <p>Results</p> <p>While the extract stimulated PPARγ-dependent luciferase activity and activated AMPK in C2C12 cells, it inhibited TNF-α-stimulated IKKβ/NFkB signaling and attenuated ER stress in HepG2 cells. The <it>db/db </it>mice treated with the extract showed reduced fasting blood glucose and HbA<sub>1c </sub>levels, improved postprandial glucose levels, enhanced insulin sensitivity and significantly decreased plasma free fatty acid, triglyceride and total cholesterol.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>The aqueous extract of these seven hypoglycemic herbs demonstrated many therapeutic effects for the treatment of type 2 diabetes in cell and animal models.</p

    The orphan nuclear receptor SHP is a positive regulator of osteoblastic bone formation

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    The orphan nuclear receptor small heterodimer partner (SHP; NR0B2) interacts with a diverse array of transcription factors and regulates a variety of cellular events such as cell proliferation, differentiation, and metabolism. However, the role of SHP in bone formation has not yet been elucidated. SHP expression is significantly increased during osteoblast differentiation, and its expression is partially regulated by bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2), which plays an important role in bone formation. In our study, inhibition of SHP expression significantly repressed BMP-2-induced osteoblast differentiation and ectopic bone formation. In accordance with these in vitro and in vivo results, osteoblast differentiation in SHP −/− mice primary osteoblasts was significantly repressed, and the mice showed decreased bone mass resulting from decreased numbers of osteoblasts. Finally, SHP physically interacts and forms a complex with runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) on the osteocalcin gene promoter, and overexpression of SHP increased Runx2 transactivity via competition with histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4), an enzyme that inhibits DNA binding of Runx2 to its target genes. Taken together, these results indicate that SHP acts as a novel positive regulator of bone formation by augmenting osteoblast differentiation through regulation of the transcriptional activity of Runx2. © 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral ResearchPeer Reviewedhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/65055/1/90718_ftp.pd

    Identification and characterization of longevity assurance gene related to stress resistance in Brassica

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    Brassica is a very important vegetable group worldwide and different stresses are a major concern for these crops. Enhancement of resistance against biotic and abiotic stresses by exploiting stress resistance related genes offers the most efficient approach to address this concern. In this study, a stress resistance related gene was identified from the full-length cDNA library of Brassica rapa cv. Osome, which was determined to be Brassica longevity assurance protein (BrLAP) after sequence analysis. A comparison study of this gene showed a high degree of homology with other stress resistance related longevity assurance genes and was shown to be expressed in all organs during all of the developmental growth stages. In addition, this gene significantly responded after cold, drought and ABA stress treatments in Chinese cabbage. All these data revealed that this gene may be involved in plant resistance against stresses.Keywords: Brassica rapa, longevity assurance gene, gene expression, biotic and abiotic stres
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