8 research outputs found

    Structural Effects of the Donor Moiety on Reduction Kinetics of Oxidized Dye in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

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    One of the major factors influencing the regeneration rate of the oxidized dye in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) is the energy difference (Δ<i>G</i>) between the levels of the dye’s HOMO and redox couple in the electrolyte. To investigate other factors that influence this process, we examined the effect of structural differences of donor moieties on the reduction rate of the oxidized dye of organic dyes that is composed of an acceptor unit, a π-conjugated linker unit, and a donor unit, including carbazole dye (<b>MK-1</b>), triphenylamine dye (<b>MK-88</b>), and coumarin dye (<b>MK-31</b>). The DSSCs using <b>MK-88</b> showed the fastest regeneration rate even though the Δ<i>G</i> was not the largest among the dye structures evaluated. The regeneration rates of all of the dyes were enhanced by reducing the number of adsorbed dyes. On the basis of the results, we attribute the fast regeneration of <b>MK-88</b> to the large collision cross section of the oxidized dye, that is, the increased reduction rate to the larger exposure of the HOMO of the dyes to the redox species. The effect of the exposed surface area on the reduction rate was as large as the free-energy difference, suggesting a new design strategy for efficient sensitizers

    The Effects of Physical Exercise with Music on Cognitive Function of Elderly People: Mihama-Kiho Project

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    <div><p>Background</p><p>Physical exercise has positive effects on cognitive function in elderly people. It is unknown, however, if combinations of non-pharmaceutical interventions can produce more benefits than single ones. This study aimed to identify if physical exercise combined with music improves cognitive function in normal elderly people more than exercise alone.</p><p>Methods</p><p>We enrolled 119 subjects (age 65–84 years old). Forty subjects performed physical exercise (once a week for an hour with professional trainers) with musical accompaniment (ExM group), developed by YAMAHA Music Foundation; 40 subjects performed the same exercise without music (Ex group); 39 subjects were the control group (Cont group). Before and after the year-long intervention, each patient was assessed by neuropsychological batteries. MRIs were performed before and after intervention; the Voxel-based Specific Regional analysis system for Alzheimer's Disease (VSRAD) was used to assess medial temporal lobe atrophy.</p><p>Results</p><p>Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was significant only in visuospatial function. The multiple comparison (ExM vs. Ex, ExM vs. Cont, Ex vs. Cont) was significant between the ExM and Cont group. Intra-group analyses before and after intervention revealed significant improvement in visuospatial function in the ExM group, and significant improvements in other batteries in all three groups. The VSRAD score significantly worsened in the ExM and Ex groups.</p><p>Conclusions</p><p>Physical exercise combined with music produced more positive effects on cognitive function in elderly people than exercise alone. We attributed this improvement to the multifaceted nature of combining physical exercise with music, which can act simultaneously as both cognitive and physical training.</p><p>Trial Registration</p><p>UMIN Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN-CTR) <a href="https://upload.umin.ac.jp/cgi-open-bin/ctr/ctr.cgi?function=brows&action=brows&recptno=R000014201&type=summary&language=J" target="_blank">UMIN000012148</a></p></div

    Results of intra-group analyses before and after the intervention.

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    <p>Cont: control group, Ex: exercise group, ExM: exercise with music group, LM: logical memory, MMSE: Mini-Mental State Examination, RCPM: Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices, sd: standard deviation, TMT: Trail-Making Test, VSRAD: Voxel-based Specific Regional analysis system for Alzheimer's Disease, WF: word fluency, bold letters: significant.</p

    Results from the analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the extent of changes before and after intervention in the three groups.

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    A<p>: 1 way ANOVA,</p>B<p>: Kruskal-Wallis test, Cont: control group, Ex: exercise group, ExM: exercise with music group; LM: logical memory, MMSE: Mini-Mental State Examination, RCPM: Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices, sd: standard deviation, TMT: Trail-Making Test, VSRAD: Voxel-based Specific Regional analysis system for Alzheimer's Disease; WF: word fluency; bold letters: significant.</p

    Characteristics of the ExM, Ex, and control groups.

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    <p>ADL: activity of daily life, edu: education,</p><p>Ex: physical exercise without music, ExM: physical exercise with music.</p><p>F: female, M: male, MMSE: Mini-Mental State Examination.</p><p>sd: standard deviation.</p
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