85,658 research outputs found

    Simulator comparison of thumball, thumb switch, and touch screen input concepts for interaction with a large screen cockpit display format

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    A piloted simulation study was conducted comparing three different input methods for interfacing to a large screen, multiwindow, whole flight deck display for management of transport aircraft systems. The thumball concept utilized a miniature trackball embedded in a conventional side arm controller. The multifunction control throttle and stick (MCTAS) concept employed a thumb switch located in the throttle handle. The touch screen concept provided data entry through a capacitive touch screen installed on the display surface. The objective and subjective results obtained indicate that, with present implementations, the thumball concept was the most appropriate for interfacing with aircraft systems/subsystems presented on a large screen display. Not unexpectedly, the completion time differences between the three concepts varied with the task being performed, although the thumball implementation consistently outperformed the other two concepts. However, pilot suggestions for improved implementations of the MCTAS and touch screen concepts could reduce some of these differences

    Category-specific enhancement of retrieval due to field perspective

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    Two memory perspectives have been distinguished: A field perspective where events are re-experienced in the first person, and an observer perspective where events are witnessed in the third person. Two experiments examined the influence of memory perspective on objective memory performance. In both experiments participants were presented with a series of verbal passages, each of which contained several different categories of information. For four of these categories (pertaining to affective reactions, physical sensations, psychological states, and associated ideas), recall was significantly higher when a field perspective was adopted than when an observer perspective was adopted, but for the five other categories (pertaining to physical actions, personal appearance, fine details, spatial relations, and peripheral details) there was no significant effect of perspective upon recall. The study is examined in the context of mental models and imagined episodic events

    A Preliminary Investigation of the Performance of a Short-length Turbojet Combustor Using Vaporized Hydrocarbon Fuels

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    Two short turbojet combustors designed for use with vaporized hydrocarbon fuels were tested in a one-quarter annular duct. The experimental combustors consisted of many small "swirl-can" combustor elements manifolded together. This design approach allowed the secondary mixing zone to be considerably reduced over that of conventional combustors. The over-all combustion lengths, for the two configurations were 13.5 and 11.0 inches, approximately one-half the length of the shortest conventional combustors. These short combustors did not provide combustion efficiencies as high as those for conventional combustors at low pressures. However, over the range of combustor-inlet total-pressures expected in aircraft capable of flight at Mach numbers of 2.5 and above, these short combustors gave very high efficiencies. A combustion efficiency of 97 percent was obtained at a combustor-inlet total-pressure of 25.0 inches of mercury absolute, reference velocity of 120 feet per second, and inlet-air total temperature of 1160 deg R. By proportioning the fuel flow between the manifold rows of can combustor elements, control of the combustor-outlet radial total-temperature profile was demonstrated. Combustor totalpressure loss varied from 0.75 percent of the inlet total pressure at isothermal conditions and a reference velocity of 75 feet per second to 5.5 percent at a total-temperature ratio of 1.8 and a reference velocity of 180 feet per second

    A theoretical and experimental investigation of cylindrical electrostatic probes at arbitrary incidence in flowing plasma

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    The theory for calculating the current collected by a negatively biased cylindrical electrostatic probe at an arbitrary angle of attack in a weakley ionized flowing plasma is presented. The theory was constructed by considering both random and directed motion simultaneous with dynamic coupling of the flow properties and of the electric field of the probe. This direct approach yielded a theory that is more general than static plasma theories modified to account for flow. Theoretical calculations are compared with experimental electrostatic probe data obtained in the free stream of an arc-heated hypersonic wind tunnel. The theoretical calculations are based on flow conditions and plasma electron densities measured by an independent microwave interferometer technique. In addition, the theory is compared with laboratory and satellite data previously published by other investigators. In each case the comparison gives good agreement

    Wakefield damping for the CLIC crab cavity

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    A crab cavity is required in the CLIC to allow effective head-on collision of bunches at the IP. A high operating frequency is preferred as the deflection voltage required for a given rotation angle and the RF phase tolerance for a crab cavity are inversely proportional to the operating frequency. The short bunch spacing of the CLIC scheme and the high sensitivity of the crab cavity to dipole kicks demand very high damping of the inter-bunch wakes, the major contributor to the luminosity loss of colliding bunches. This paper investigates the nature of the wakefields in the CLIC crab cavity and the possibility of using various damping schemes to suppress them effectively

    Inducing energy gaps in graphene monolayer and bilayer

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    In this paper we propose a mechanism for the induction of energy gaps in the spectrum of graphene and its bilayer, when both these materials are covered with water and ammonia molecules. The energy gaps obtained are within the range 20-30 meV, values compatible to those found in experimental studies of graphene bilayer. We further show that the binding energies are large enough for the adsorption of the molecules to be maintained even at room temperature
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