8 research outputs found

    Impact of bisphenol A (BPA) on survival and growth.

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    <p>(A) Percent survival of trout embryos was calculated at the end of the experimental period (400-dpf). (B) Temporal changes in average body mass (g), measured every two weeks after the time of first feed (65 dpf), in the control and BPA exposed groups during development, and (C) in juveniles at 400 dpf. Oocytes were exposed to either control (vehicle alone) or BPA at 30 µg.ml<sup>−1</sup> (low) or 100 µg.ml<sup>−1</sup> (high) for 3 h and fertilized with untreated sperm. Fertilized eggs were incubated at 8.5°C and were sampled at various time points during development; values represent mean + SEM (n = 6); bars with different letters are statistically significant (two-way ANOVA for temporal changes and one-way ANOVA for single time point; p<0.05).</p

    Impact of bisphenol A (BPA) on growth hormone (GH) content and gene expressions.

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    <p>Temporal changes in GH content in the control and BPA treated groups during early development (A) and plasma GH levels at 400-dpf (B); Temporal changes in GH1 (C) and GH2 (D) mRNA abundances in trout exposed to control and two different concentrations of BPA. Maternal transcript levels were measured in freshly fertilized eggs and represented as 0-dpf (dark colored bar). GH was determined using trout specific anti-GH antibody as described in the <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0010741#s4" target="_blank">materials and methods</a>. Two-way ANOVA was used to determine the effect of time, treatment and interaction effects on GH levels and transcript levels during development (Bonferonni posthoc test; p<0.05). Different letters represent differences between treatments at each time point. Asterisk (*) represent effect of time on GH content. One way ANOVA was used to determine the effect of BPA on plasma GH levels. All values represent mean + SEM (n = 7).</p

    Impact of bisphenol A (BPA) on growth hormone (GH) receptors gene expressions.

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    <p>Temporal changes in GH-1 receptor (GH-1R; A) and -2 receptor (GH-2R; B) mRNA abundances during rainbow trout development. See <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0010741#pone-0010741-g002" target="_blank">Fig. 2</a> legend for experimental details. Maternal transcript levels were measured in freshly fertilized eggs and represented as 0 dpf (dark colored bar). Two-way ANOVA was used to determine the effect of time, treatment and interaction effects on the transcript levels during development (Bonferonni posthoc test; p<0.05). Different letters represent differences between treatments at each time point. Asterisk (*) represent effect of time on the transcript levels. All values represent mean + SEM (n = 7 fish).</p

    Impact of bisphenol A (BPA) on the organismal stress response.

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    <p>Effect of BPA exposure on stressor-induced plasma cortisol (A) and glucose concentrations (B) in juvenile rainbow trout (400-dpf). Plasma samples were collected at 0 (prior to stress), 1, 4 and 24 h after a handling disturbance. See <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0010741#pone-0010741-g002" target="_blank">Fig. 2</a> legend for details. All values represent mean ± SEM (n = 8 fish); time points with different letters are statistically significant (Two-way ANOVA; p<0.05).</p

    Bisphenol A (BPA) content and vitellogenin (VTG) expression in trout embryos.

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    <p>Temporal changes in BPA concentrations (A) and VTG mRNA abundance (B) and protein expression (C) in rainbow trout embryos after 3 h acute exposure of oocytes to low (30 µg. ml<sup>−1</sup>) and high (100 µg.ml<sup>−1</sup>) dose of BPA. BPA was dissolved in ethanol and added to the ovarian fluid and after 3 h exposure oocytes were fertilized with untreated sperm, water hardened and maintained at 8.5°C. BPA was quantified in embryos collected soon after exposure (3 h) and at 13-, 21- and 35-dpf using LC-MS/MS method. The minimum detection limit of BPA was 75–80 ng.g<sup>−1</sup> wet weight of tissue (n = 3; each replicate is a pool of 6 embryos). nd denotes non-detectable levels of BPA. VTG mRNA levels in embryos at 13- and 140-dpf (B) were determined by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Liver VTG protein expression (C) was determined in the juveniles at 140-dpf by Western blotting. VTG protein content was detected using anti-trout VTG antibody raised in rabbit. VTG protein was non-detectable (nd) in the control group; values represent mean + SEM (n = 6–8 fish); bars with different letters are statistically significant (ANOVA, p<0.05).</p

    Impact of bisphenol A (BPA) on insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and their receptors gene expressions.

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    <p>Temporal changes in IGF-1 (A) and IGF-2 (B) and IGF-1 receptor a (IGF-1 Ra; C) and b (IGF-I Rb; D) mRNA abundances in rainbow trout embryos in response to BPA treatment. See the <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0010741#pone-0010741-g002" target="_blank">Fig. 2</a> legend for experimental details. Maternal transcript levels were measured in freshly fertilized eggs and represented as 0-dpf (dark colored bar). Two-way ANOVA was used to determine the effect of time, treatment and interaction effects on the transcript levels during development (Bonferonni post hoc test; p<0.05). Different letters represent differences between treatments at each time point. Asterisk (*) represent effect of time on mRNA abundances. All values represent mean + SEM (n = 7).</p

    Oligonucleotide primers of the genes used in quantitative real-time PCR along with their NCBI accession numbers, annealing temperature (Tm) and the size of the amplicon.

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    <p>Oligonucleotide primers of the genes used in quantitative real-time PCR along with their NCBI accession numbers, annealing temperature (Tm) and the size of the amplicon.</p

    Impact of bisphenol A (BPA) on embryo development.

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    <p>Phenotypic changes post-hatch in trout embryos (65 dpf) treated with BPA. Rainbow trout oocytes were acutely exposed to either low (30 µg. ml<sup>−1</sup>) or high (100 µg.ml<sup>−1</sup>) BPA for 3 h, fertilized with untreated sperm, water hardened and maintained at 8.5°C. Image clearly shows morphological differences, including smaller size and the presence of yolk (arrow shown) in the BPA groups compared to the control.</p
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