1,038 research outputs found

    Cost of Services and Incentives in the UK Employment Retention and Advancement (ERA) Demonstration: Preliminary Analysis

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    This report presents a preliminary analysis of the cost of operating Britain's Employment Retention and Advancement (ERA) demonstration, which is being evaluated though a large-scale randomised control trial. This assessment of costs will become an important element of the full cost-benefit analysis to be presented in future ERA reports. Aimed at helping low-income individuals sustain employment and progress in work, ERA is distinguished by a combination of job coaching and financial incentives that it offers to participants once they are working. The ERA demonstration project began operations in late 2003 as a pilot programme administered by Jobcentre Plus in six regions of the country

    Discriminating among theories of spiral structure using Gaia DR2

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    We compare the distribution in position and velocity of nearby stars from the Gaia DR2 radial velocity sample with predictions of current theories for spirals in disc galaxies. Although the rich substructure in velocity space contains the same information, we find it more revealing to reproject the data into action-angle variables, and we describe why resonant scattering would be more readily identifiable in these variables. We compute the predicted changes to the phase space density, in multiple different projections, that would be caused by a simplified isolated spiral pattern, finding widely differing predictions from each theory. We conclude that the phase space structure present in the Gaia data shares many of the qualitative features expected in the transient spiral mode model. We argue that the popular picture of apparently swing-amplified spirals results from the superposition of a few underlying spiral modes.Comment: Revised version accepted to appear in MNRAS. Some significant improvements. A full resolution version of Fig 4 is available from http://www.physics.rutgers.edu/~sellwood/mult_res.pd

    Aptamer Microarrays-Current Status and Future Prospects

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    Microarray technologies are state of the art in biological research, which requires fast genome, proteome and transcriptome analysis technologies. Often antibodies are applied in protein microarrays as proteomic tools. Since the generation of antibodies against toxic targets or small molecules including organic compounds remains challenging the use of antibodies may be limited in this context. In contrast to this, aptamer microarrays provide alternative techniques to circumvent these limitations. In this article we review the latest developments in aptamer microarray technology. We discuss similarities and differences between DNA and aptamer microarrays and shed light on the post synthesis immobilization of aptamers including corresponding effects on the microarray performance. Finally, we highlight current limitations and future prospects of aptamer microarray technology

    Effektivität des PROSIT-Interventionsprogramms in Bezug auf die Blutglukoseeinstellung bei Typ 2-diabetischen Patienten

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    Das 1993 initiierte PROSIT®-Projekt ist das erste Disease-Management-Programm für Diabetes in Deutschland. Es hat sich eine gute Versorgung der Patienten mit Diabetes mellitus und die Aufnahme des Screenings auf Mikroalbumin im Urin in die Regelversorgung von diabetischen Patienten zum Ziel gesetzt. Des weiteren setzt sich PROSIT® für den Aufbau dauerhafter Behandlungsstrukturen für die Patientenversorgung ein, um so zur Verringerung diabetesbedingter Folgeerkrankungen beizutragen. Ziel der vorliegenden longitudinalen Analyse war, die Effekte des PROSIT®-Projekts auf die Blutglukoseeinstellung bei Patienten mit Diabetes mellitus Typ 2 zu untersuchen und die Effektivität eines solchen Disease-Management-Programms in der Diabetesversorgung zu belegen. Dazu wurden Daten aus der PROSIT®-Datenbank des Zeitraums 01/1997 bis 09/2001 herangezogen und 2 Patientenkohorten gebildet, die sich durch Einschlusszeitpunkt (Kohorte 1: 01/97-12/98, Kohorte 2: 01/99-09/01) und Beobachtungsdauer unterscheiden. Im analysierten Beobachtungszeitraum ist ein hochsignifikanter Rückgang des HbA1c-Mittelwerts von 7,6 % bzw. 7,5 % auf 7,1 % in den beiden untersuchten Kohorten zu verzeichnen. Der Anteil der Patienten im HbA1c-Zielbereich (≤ 65 Jahre: HbA1c ≤ 6%, > 65 Jahre: HbA1c ≤ 7%) steigt von 32,3 % bzw. 28,2 % auf 34,1 % bzw. 36,5 % und gleichzeitig sinkt der Anteil der Patienten im HbA1c-Risikobereich (HbA1c > 8,5%) von 28,1 % bzw. 17,7 % auf 12,9 % bzw. 8,8 %. Bei der Analyse der Diabetestherapie zeigt sich in beiden Kohorten eine kontinuierliche Zunahme der Insulintherapie mit ansteigender Häufigkeit der intensivierten Insulintherapie. Zur Therapie mit oralen Antidiabetika werden vermehrt neuere Substanzklassen wie Meglitinide und Insulinsensitizer eingesetzt, denen in neueren Studien gute Wirksamkeit bei niedriger Nebenwirkungsrate bescheinigt wird. Die Gesamtheit der in dieser Arbeit durchgeführten Analysen zeigt, dass durch strukturierte und evaluierte Intervention, wie sie im PROSIT®-Projekt erfolgt, bei Patienten mit Diabetes eine deutliche Verbesserung der Blutglukoseeinstellung erreicht werden kann. Es ist jedoch anzumerken, dass in vielen Fällen noch unzureichend auf schlechte HbA1c-Werte reagiert wird und eine weitere Therapieintensivierung gemäß den ausgesprochenen Therapie-empfehlungen vorgenommen werden sollte. Daher sind in Zukunft weitere Anstrengungen nötig, um die Versorgung der Patienten mit Diabetes zu optimieren

    I'm Spartacus! Ein zeitloser Held: das Heldenbild des Spartacus in Howard Fasts Roman von 1951 im Vergleich mit den Verfilmungen von 1960 und 2004

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    Walter J. I'm Spartacus! Ein zeitloser Held: das Heldenbild des Spartacus in Howard Fasts Roman von 1951 im Vergleich mit den Verfilmungen von 1960 und 2004. Bielefeld: Universität Bielefeld; 2014

    Unbiased TGAS×\timesLAMOST distances and the role of binarity

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    Spectrophotometric distances to stars observed by large spectroscopic surveys offer a crucial complement to parallax distances that remain very important also after the future Gaia data releases. Here we present a probabilistic approach to modeling spectroscopic information for a subset of 4,000 main sequence stars with good parallaxes (σϖ/ϖ<0.1\sigma_\varpi/\varpi<0.1) from the LAMOST ×\times TGAS ×\times 2MASS cross-match, yielding a precise spectroscopic distance estimator with uncertainties of ∼\sim6% for single stars. Unlike previous approaches to this problem, we explicitly account for the individual parallax uncertainties in the model building and fully incorporate the fraction of near-equal binaries of main sequence stars, which would lead to biased distance estimates if neglected. Using this model, we estimate the distance for all (150,000) main sequence stars from LAMOST Data Release 5, without parallax information. As an application, we compute their orbital actions, where our more precise distances result in 5 times smaller action uncertainties. This illustrates how future studies of the Milky Way's orbital structure can benefit from using our model. For the fainter and more distant stars of most current spectroscopic surveys, an approach such as the one presented in this work will deliver better distances than Gaia Data Release 2.Comment: 12 pages, 13 figures. Accepted for publication in MNRA

    Correlation between machining direction, cutter geometry and step-over distance in 3-axis milling: Application to milling by zones.

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    Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM) occupies an increasingly important role in engineering with all it has to offer in terms of new possibilities and improving designer/manufacturer productivity. The present study addresses machining of free-form surfaces on a 3-axis NC machine tool. There have recently been a large number of studies devoted to planning tool paths on free-form surfaces with various strategies being adopted. These strategies are intended to increase efficiency by reducing the overall length of machining. Often, the choice of the cutter is arbitrary and the work focuses on planning. In order to boost productivity, the present work offers assistance in choosing the cutting tool, the machining direction and cutting by surface zones, adopting a milling strategy by parallel planes. To do so, a comparison is made between milling using a spherical end milling cutter and a torus end milling cutter with the same outer radius. This comparison relates to the radius of curvature of the trace left by the cutter at the point of contact between the tool and the workpiece in relation to the direction of feed motion

    Aptamer-modified nanomaterials: Principles and applications

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    Aptamers are promising alternative binders that can substitute antibodies in various applications. Due to the advantages of aptamers, namely their high affinity, specificity and stability, along with the benefits originating from the chemical synthesis of aptamers, they have attracted attention in various applications including their use on nanostructured material. This necessitates the immobilization of aptamers on a solid support. Since aptamer immobilization may interfere with its binding properties, the immobilization of aptamers has to be investigated and optimized. Within this review, we give general insights into the principles and factors controlling the binding affinity of immobilized aptamers. Specific features of aptamer immobilization on nanostructured surfaces and nanoparticles are highlighted and a brief overview of applications of aptamer-modified nanostructured materials is given

    Novel treatment strategies for chronic kidney disease: insights from the animal kingdom

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    Many of the &gt;2 million animal species that inhabit Earth have developed survival mechanisms that aid in the prevention of obesity, kidney disease, starvation, dehydration and vascular ageing; however, some animals remain susceptible to these complications. Domestic and captive wild felids, for example, show susceptibility to chronic kidney disease (CKD), potentially linked to the high protein intake of these animals. By contrast, naked mole rats are a model of longevity and are protected from extreme environmental conditions through mechanisms that provide resistance to oxidative stress. Biomimetic studies suggest that the transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) offers protection in extreme environmental conditions and promotes longevity in the animal kingdom. Similarly, during months of fasting, immobilization and anuria, hibernating bears are protected from muscle wasting, azotaemia, thrombotic complications, organ damage and osteoporosis - features that are often associated with CKD. Improved understanding of the susceptibility and protective mechanisms of these animals and others could provide insights into novel strategies to prevent and treat several human diseases, such as CKD and ageing-associated complications. An integrated collaboration between nephrologists and experts from other fields, such as veterinarians, zoologists, biologists, anthropologists and ecologists, could introduce a novel approach for improving human health and help nephrologists to find novel treatment strategies for CKD
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