531 research outputs found

    Online Algorithms for Multi-Level Aggregation

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    In the Multi-Level Aggregation Problem (MLAP), requests arrive at the nodes of an edge-weighted tree T, and have to be served eventually. A service is defined as a subtree X of T that contains its root. This subtree X serves all requests that are pending in the nodes of X, and the cost of this service is equal to the total weight of X. Each request also incurs waiting cost between its arrival and service times. The objective is to minimize the total waiting cost of all requests plus the total cost of all service subtrees. MLAP is a generalization of some well-studied optimization problems; for example, for trees of depth 1, MLAP is equivalent to the TCP Acknowledgment Problem, while for trees of depth 2, it is equivalent to the Joint Replenishment Problem. Aggregation problem for trees of arbitrary depth arise in multicasting, sensor networks, communication in organization hierarchies, and in supply-chain management. The instances of MLAP associated with these applications are naturally online, in the sense that aggregation decisions need to be made without information about future requests. Constant-competitive online algorithms are known for MLAP with one or two levels. However, it has been open whether there exist constant competitive online algorithms for trees of depth more than 2. Addressing this open problem, we give the first constant competitive online algorithm for networks of arbitrary (fixed) number of levels. The competitive ratio is O(D^4*2^D), where D is the depth of T. The algorithm works for arbitrary waiting cost functions, including the variant with deadlines. We include several additional results in the paper. We show that a standard lower-bound technique for MLAP, based on so-called Single-Phase instances, cannot give super-constant lower bounds (as a function of the tree depth). This result is established by giving an online algorithm with optimal competitive ratio 4 for such instances on arbitrary trees. We also study the MLAP variant when the tree is a path, for which we give a lower bound of 4 on the competitive ratio, improving the lower bound known for general MLAP. We complement this with a matching upper bound for the deadline setting

    Determination of the top-quark pole mass and strong coupling constant from the ttbar production cross section in pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV

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    The inclusive cross section for top-quark pair production measured by the CMS experiment in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV is compared to the QCD prediction at next-to-next-to-leading order with various parton distribution functions to determine the top-quark pole mass, mtpolem_t^{pole}, or the strong coupling constant, αS\alpha_S. With the parton distribution function set NNPDF2.3, a pole mass of 176.7−2.8+3.0^{+3.0}_{-2.8} GeV is obtained when constraining αS\alpha_S at the scale of the Z boson mass, mZm_Z, to the current world average. Alternatively, by constraining mtpolem_t^{pole} to the latest average from direct mass measurements, a value of αS(mZ)\alpha_S(m_Z) = 0.1151−0.0027+0.0028^{+0.0028}_{-0.0027} is extracted. This is the first determination of αS\alpha_S using events from top-quark production

    Transverse momentum spectra of b jets in pPb collisions at sqrt(s[NN]) = 5.02 TeV

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    We present a measurement of b jet transverse momentum (pt) spectra in proton-lead (pPb) collisions using a dataset corresponding to about 35 inverse nanobarns collected with the CMS detector at the LHC. Jets from b quark fragmentation are found by exploiting the long lifetime of hadrons containing a b quark through tagging methods using distributions of the secondary vertex mass and displacement. Extracted cross sections for b jets are scaled by the effective number of nucleon-nucleon collisions and are compared to a reference obtained from PYTHIA simulations of pp collisions. The PYTHIA-based estimate of the nuclear modification factor is found to be 1.22 +/- 0.15 (stat + syst pPb) +/- 0.27 (syst PYTHIA) averaged over all jets with pt between 55 and 400 GeV/c and with abs(eta[lab]) < 2. We also compare this result to predictions from models using perturbative calculations in quantum chromodynamics

    Search for quark contact interactions and extra spatial dimensions using dijet angular distributions in proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s) = 8 TeV

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    A search is presented for quark contact interactions and extra spatial dimensions in proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s) = 8 TeV using dijet angular distributions. The search is based on a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 inverse femtobarns collected by the CMS detector at the CERN LHC. Dijet angular distributions are found to be in agreement with the perturbative QCD predictions that include electroweak corrections. Limits on the contact interaction scale from a variety of models at next-to-leading order in QCD corrections are obtained. A benchmark model in which only left-handed quarks participate is excluded up to a scale of 9.0 (11.7) TeV for destructive (constructive) interference at 95% confidence level. Lower limits between 5.9 and 8.4 TeV on the scale of virtual graviton exchange are extracted for the Arkani-Hamed--Dimopoulos--Dvali model of extra spatial dimensions

    Probing color coherence effects in pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV

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    A study of color coherence effects in pp collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV is presented. The data used in the analysis were collected in 2010 with the CMS detector at the LHC and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 36 inverse picobarns. Events are selected that contain at least three jets and where the two jets with the largest transverse momentum exhibit a back-to-back topology. The measured angular correlation between the second- and third-leading jet is shown to be sensitive to color coherence effects, and is compared to the predictions of Monte Carlo models with various implementations of color coherence. None of the models describe the data satisfactorily

    Searches for electroweak production of charginos, neutralinos, and sleptons decaying to leptons and W, Z, and Higgs bosons in pp collisions at 8 TeV

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    Searches for the direct electroweak production of supersymmetric charginos, neutralinos, and sleptons in a variety of signatures with leptons and W, Z, and Higgs bosons are presented. Results are based on a sample of proton-proton collision data collected at center-of-mass energy sqrt(s) = 8 TeV with the CMS detector in 2012, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.5 inverse femtobarns. The observed event rates are in agreement with expectations from the standard model. These results probe charginos and neutralinos with masses up to 720 GeV, and sleptons up to 260 GeV, depending on the model details

    Performance of photon reconstruction and identification with the CMS detector in proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s) = 8 TeV

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    A description is provided of the performance of the CMS detector for photon reconstruction and identification in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV at the CERN LHC. Details are given on the reconstruction of photons from energy deposits in the electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) and the extraction of photon energy estimates. The reconstruction of electron tracks from photons that convert to electrons in the CMS tracker is also described, as is the optimization of the photon energy reconstruction and its accurate modelling in simulation, in the analysis of the Higgs boson decay into two photons. In the barrel section of the ECAL, an energy resolution of about 1% is achieved for unconverted or late-converting photons from H to gamma gamma decays. Different photon identification methods are discussed and their corresponding selection efficiencies in data are compared with those found in simulated events

    Search for the associated production of the Higgs boson with a top-quark pair

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    A search for the standard model Higgs boson produced in association with a top-quark pair (t tbar H) is presented, using data samples corresponding to integrated luminosities of up to 5.1 inverse femtobarns and 19.7 inverse femtobarns collected in pp collisions at center-of-mass energies of 7 TeV and 8 TeV respectively. The search is based on the following signatures of the Higgs boson decay: H to hadrons, H to photons, and H to leptons. The results are characterized by an observed t tbar H signal strength relative to the standard model cross section, mu = sigma/sigma[SM], under the assumption that the Higgs boson decays as expected in the standard model. The best fit value is mu = 2.8 +/- 1.0 for a Higgs boson mass of 125.6 GeV

    Differential cross section measurements for the production of a W boson in association with jets in proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV

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    Measurements are reported of differential cross sections for the production of a W boson, which decays into a muon and a neutrino, in association with jets, as a function of several variables, including the transverse momenta (pt) and pseudorapidities of the four leading jets, the scalar sum of jet transverse momenta (HT), and the difference in azimuthal angle between the directions of each jet and the muon. The data sample of pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV was collected with the CMS detector at the LHC and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 5.0 inverse femtobarns. The measured cross sections are compared to predictions from Monte Carlo generators, MADGRAPH + PYTHIA and SHERPA, and to next-to-leading-order calculations from BLACKHAT + SHERPA. The differential cross sections are found to be in agreement with the predictions, apart from the pt distributions of the leading jets at high pt values, the distributions of the HT at high-HT and low jet multiplicity, and the distribution of the difference in azimuthal angle between the leading jet and the muon at low values
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