20,123 research outputs found

    Lidar measurements of thermal structure

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    Rayleigh backscatter observations at 532 nm and 355 nm of relative atmospheric density above Aberystwyth on a total of 93 nights between Dec. 1982 and Feb. 1985 were used to derive the height variation of temperature in the upper stratosphere and mesosphere. Preliminary results for height up to about 25 km were also obtained from observations of Raman backscattering from nitrogen molecules. Comparisons were carried out for stratospheric heights with satellite borne measurements; good agreement was found between equivalent black body temperatures derived from the lidar observations and those obtained from nadir measurements in three channels of the stratosphere sounder units on NOAA satellites; the lidar based atmospheric temperatures have shown general agreement with but a greater degree of structure than the limb sounding measurements obtained using the SAMS experiment on the NOAA-7 satellite. In summer, stratospheric and mesospheric temperatures showed a smooth height variation similar to that of the CIRA model atmosphere. In contrast, the winter data showed a great variability with height, and marked temperature changes both from night to night and within a given night

    Controlled manipulation of light by cooperative response of atoms in an optical lattice

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    We show that a cooperative atom response in an optical lattice to resonant incident light can be employed for precise control and manipulation of light on a subwavelength scale. Specific collective excitation modes of the system that result from strong light-mediated dipole-dipole interactions can be addressed by tailoring the spatial phase-profile of the incident light. We demonstrate how the collective response can be used to produce optical excitations at well-isolated sites on the lattice.Comment: 8 pages, 1 figur

    Observations of stratospheric aerosols associated with the El Chichon eruption

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    Lidar observations of aerosols were carried out at Aberystwyth between Nov. 1982 and Dec. 1985 using a frequency doubled and frequency tripled Nd/Yag laser and a receiver incorporating a 1 m diameter in a Newtonian telescope configuration. In analyses of the experimental data attention is paid to the magnitude of the coefficient relating extinction and backscatter, the choice being related to the possible presence of aerosols in the upper troposphere and the atmospheric densities employed in the normalisation procedure. The aerosol loading showed marked day to day changes in early months and an overall decay was apparent only after April 1983, this decay being consistent with an e sup -1 time of about 7 months. The general decay was accompanied by a lowering of the layer but layers of aerosols were shown intermittently at heights above the main layer in winter months. The height variations of photon counts corrected for range, or of aerosol backscatter ratio, showed clear signatures of the tropopause. A strong correlation was found between the heights of the tropopause identified from the lidar measurements and from radiosonde-borne temperature measurements. A notable feature of the observations is the appearance of very sharp height gradients of backscatter ratio which seem to be produced by differential advection

    Supporting Pluralism by Artificial Intelligence: Conceptualizing Epistemic Disagreements as Digital Artifacts

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    A crucial concept in philosophy and social sciences, epistemic disagreement, has not yet been adequately reflected in the Web. In this paper, we call for development of intelligent tools dealing with epistemic disagreements on the Web to support pluralism. As a first step, we present Polyphony, an ontology for representing and annotating epistemic disagreements

    Lower thermosphere densities of N2, O and Ar under high latitude winter conditions

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    Measurements of the neutral thermosphere were conducted in northern Scandinavia during the Energy Budget Campaign. These measurements included determinations of N2, O, and Ar densities using rocket-borne experiments. The results obtained in the experiments are presented, taking into account also details regarding the employed experimental methods, and an evaluation of the significance of the data. It is found that there are striking differences in thermospheric distributions of the neutral constituents under different geomagnetic conditions. Under quiet geomagnetic conditions there was reasonable agreement with the United States Standard Atmosphere. The concentrations of N2 and Ar were about 70 percent of the predicted values, while the O concentration was about 2.5 times greater

    Multiplexed Memory-Insensitive Quantum Repeaters

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    Long-distance quantum communication via distant pairs of entangled quantum bits (qubits) is the first step towards more secure message transmission and distributed quantum computing. To date, the most promising proposals require quantum repeaters to mitigate the exponential decrease in communication rate due to optical fiber losses. However, these are exquisitely sensitive to the lifetimes of their memory elements. We propose a multiplexing of quantum nodes that should enable the construction of quantum networks that are largely insensitive to the coherence times of the quantum memory elements.Comment: 5 pages, 4 figures. Accepted for publication in PR

    Electromagnetic Moments of the Baryon Decuplet

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    We compute the leading contributions to the magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments of the baryon decuplet in chiral perturbation theory. The measured value for the magnetic moment of the ő©‚ąí\Omega^- is used to determine the local counterterm for the magnetic moments. We compare the chiral perturbation theory predictions for the magnetic moments of the decuplet with those of the baryon octet and find reasonable agreement with the predictions of the large--NcN_c limit of QCD. The leading contribution to the quadrupole moment of the őĒ\Delta and other members of the decuplet comes from one--loop graphs. The pionic contribution is shown to be proportional to IzI_z (and so will not contribute to the quadrupole moment of I=0I=0 nuclei), while the contribution from kaons has both isovector and isoscalar components. The chiral logarithmic enhancement of both pion and kaon loops has a coefficient that vanishes in the SU(6)SU(6) limit. The third allowed moment, the magnetic octupole, is shown to be dominated by a local counterterm with corrections arising at two loops. We briefly mention the strange counterparts of these moments.Comment: Uses harvmac.tex, 15 pages with 3 PostScript figures packed using uufiles. UCSD/PTH 93-22, QUSTH-93-05, Duke-TH-93-5

    The structure of lightning flashes HF-UHF: 12 September 1975, Atlanta, Georgia

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    Simultaneous measurement of sferics at 3, 30, 139, and 295 MHz were made during thunderstorms. Wideband electronics and an analogue tape recorder continuously recorded the radiation from lightning with about 300 kHz of bandwidth. The data were obtained during the passage of a cold front. Flashing rate, burst rate and the structure of individual flashes were recorded. The record of a typical flash begins with a sudden burst of closely spaced pulses whose temporal structure is typical of the stepped leader, and ends in a large pulse suggestive of a first return stroke. The remainder of the flash consists of a sequence of pulses of varying amplitude separated by quiet periods of the order of milliseconds. The shape of these pulses and the temporal structure suggest that the first few large pulses are return strokes. Other discharges begin with widely spaced discrete pulses and resemble the preceding discharge less the leader and return stroke phase. The radiation exhibits a similar structure, at each of the frequencies monitored

    Terahertz Hall Measurements On Optimally Doped Single Crystal Bi-2212

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    The infrared Hall angle in optimally doped single crystal Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x\rm Bi_2 Sr_2 Ca Cu_2 O_{8+x} was measured from 3.05 to 21.75 meV as a continuous function of temperature from 25 to 300\,K. In the normal state, the temperature dependence of the real part of the cotangent of the infrared Hall angle obeys the same power law as dc measurements. The measured Hall frequency ŌČH\rm \omega_H is significantly larger than the expected value based upon ARPES data analyzed in terms of the relaxation time approximation. This discrepancy as well as the temperature dependence of Re(cot‚Ā°őłH)\rm Re(\cot{\theta_H}) and ŌČH\omega_H is well described by a Fermi liquid theory in which current vertex corrections produced by electron-magnon scattering are included.Comment: 10 pages, 2 figure
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