48 research outputs found

    Characterization of South American Snails of the Genus Biomphalaria

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    The identification of snails of the genus Biomphalaria can be done using morphological characteristics which depends on the size of the snails and skill and knowledge of researcher. These methods sometimes are not adequate for identification of species. The PCR-RFLP, using the ITS region of the rDNA, has been used to identify Brazilian species of the genus Biomphalaria. Nevertheless, there is a lack of information about snails from other Latin American countries. In addition, some snails may be infected by Schistosoma mansoni and when submitted to PCR-RFLP they show molecular profiles different from those previously standardized for the other mollusc species. In this work the molecular profiles of 15 species and the subspecies were established by PCR-RFLP of ITS-rDNA with the enzyme DdeI. Moreover, the molecular profiles of host species, B. glabrata, B. straminea, B. tenagophila, and B. prona, infected by S. mansoni were also established. The molluscs were dissected to permit morphological identification. These results contribute to a correct identification of snails of the genus Biomphalaria and detection of these snails infected by S. mansoni

    Transcriptional Profile and Structural Conservation of SUMO-Specific Proteases in Schistosoma mansoni

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    Small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) is involved in numerous cellular processes including protein localization, transcription, and cell cycle control. SUMOylation is a dynamic process, catalyzed by three SUMO-specific enzymes and reversed by Sentrin/SUMO-specific proteases (SENPs). Here we report the characterization of these proteases in Schistosoma mansoni. Using in silico analysis, we identified two SENPs sequences, orthologs of mammalian SENP1 and SENP7, confirming their identities and conservation through phylogenetic analysis. In addition, the transcript levels of Smsenp1/7 in cercariae, adult worms, and in vitro cultivated schistosomula were measured by qRT-PCR. Our data revealed upregulation of the Smsenp1/7 transcripts in cercariae and early schistosomula, followed by a marked differential gene expression in the other analyzed stages. However, no significant difference in expression profile between the paralogs was observed for the analyzed stages. Furthermore, in order to detect deSUMOylating capabilities in crude parasite extracts, SmSENP1 enzymatic activity was evaluated using SUMO-1-AMC substrate. The endopeptidase activity related to SUMO-1 precursor processing did not differ significantly between cercariae and adult worms. Taken together, these results support the developmentally regulated expression of SUMO-specific proteases in S. mansoni

    NEDD8 conjugation in Schistosoma mansoni : genome analysis and expression profiles.

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    NEDD8 is an ubiquitin-like molecule that covalently binds to target proteins through an enzymatic cascade analogous to ubiquitylation. This modifier is known to bind to p53 and p73, as well as all Cullin family proteins, which are essential components of Skp1/Cul-1/F-box protein (SCF)-like Ub ligase complexes. Here, we focused on a genomic analysis of the genes involved in the NEDD8 conjugation pathway in Schistosoma mansoni. The results revealed seven genes related to NEDD8 conjugation that are conserved in Schistosoma japonicum, Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster and Homo sapiens. We performed quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), which showed differential profiles for Smnedd8, Smapp1, Smuba3, Smube2f, Smdcn1, Smrbx and Smsenp8 throughout the life cycle of S. mansoni. Upregulation was observed in 3-day-old schistosomula and adult worms for all analysed genes. We also analysed the transcription levels of Cullin family members Smp63 and Smp73, and observed upregulation in early schistosomula, while cercariae and adult worms showed expression levels similar to one another. Taken together, these results suggest that the NEDDylation/ DeNEDDylation pathway controls important cellular regulators during worm development from cercariae to schistosomula and, finally, to adult

    Susceptibility of Biomphalaria tenagophila and Biomphalaria straminea to Schistosoma mansoni infection detected by low stringency polymerase chain reaction

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    In order to determine Schistosoma mansoni infection rates in Biomphalaria tenagophila and B. straminea, low stringency polymerase chain reaction (LS-PCR) technique was used as a complementary method to light exposure technique. LS-PCR has already been standardized in our laboratory to detect the trematode DNA in B. glabrata. Higher S. mansoni infection rates were detected using conventional method and LS-PCR. The parasite DNA profile was detected in both species after 7-day exposure to miracidia, using LS-PCR. This technique enables early detection of schistosomiasis transmission focuses, in endemic areas, before the beginning of cercariae shedding.Para determinar a taxa de infecção pelo Schistosoma mansoni em Biomphalaria tenagophila e em B. straminea foi utilizada a reação em cadeia da polimerase em baixa estringência (LS-PCR), como técnica complementar ao método de exposição à luz. A LS-PCR já foi padronizada no nosso laboratório para detectar o DNA do trematódeo em B. glabrata. A taxa de infecção pelo S. mansoni foi maior quando utilizou-se a técnica convencional e a LS-PCR. O perfil do DNA do parasita foi detectado após 7 dias de exposição a miracídios em ambas as espécies, quando utilizou-se a LS-PCR. Esta técnica possibilita a detecção precoce de focos de transmissão, em áreas endêmicas, antes do início da eliminação de cercárias