83 research outputs found

    Method for Enhancing Protective Cellular Responses to Genotoxic Stress in Skin

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    The present invention is directed to methods of using pro-NAD agents capable of enhancing the dermal and epidermal skin cell NAD content. These pro-NAD agents may be administered topically, orally, or parenterally to enhance DNA repair and other protective responses to DNA damage. The invention further relates to pharmaceutical compositions comprising pro-NAD agents that effectively elevate intracellular NAD content. Finally, the invention relates to the method of using the pro-NAD agents to treat disorders such as sunburn and other skin deterioration that results from DNA damage in skin cells

    Method for Enhancing Protective Cellular Responses to Genotoxic Stress in Skin

    Get PDF
    The present invention is directed to methods of using pro-NAD agents capable of enhancing the dermal and epidermal skin cell NAD content. These pro-NAD agents may be administered topically, orally, or parenterally to enhance DNA repair and other protective responses to DNA damage. The invention further relates to pharmaceutical compositions comprising pro-NAD agents that effectively elevate intracellular NAD content. Finally, the invention relates to the method of using the pro-NAD agents to treat disorders such as sunburn and other skin deterioration that results from DNA damage in skin cells

    Method for Enhancing Protective Cellular Responses to Genotoxic Stress in Skin

    Get PDF
    The present invention is directed to methods of using pro-NAD agents capable of enhancing the dermal and epidermal skin cell NAD content. These pro-NAD agents may be administered topically, orally, or parenterally to enhance DNA repair and other protective responses to DNA damage. The invention further relates to pharmaceutical compositions comprising pro-NAD agents that effectively elevate intracellular NAD content. Finally, the invention relates to the method of using the pro-NAD agents to treat disorders such as sunburn and other skin deterioration that results from DNA damage in skin cells

    Effects of niacin restriction on sirtuin and PARP responses to photodamage in human skin.

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    Sirtuins (SIRTs) and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs), NAD(+)-dependent enzymes, link cellular energy status with responses to environmental stresses. Skin is frequently exposed to the DNA damaging effects of UV irradiation, a known etiology in skin cancer. Thus, understanding the defense mechanisms in response to UV, including the role of SIRTs and PARPs, may be important in developing skin cancer prevention strategies. Here, we report expression of the seven SIRT family members in human skin. SIRTs gene expressions are progressively upregulated in A431 epidermoid carcinoma cells (SIRTs1 and 3), actinic keratoses (SIRTs 2, 3, 5, 6, and 7) and squamous cell carcinoma (SIRTs 1-7). Photodamage induces dynamic changes in SIRT expression with upregulation of both SIRT1 and SIRT4 mRNAs. Specific losses of SIRT proteins occur early after photodamage followed by accumulation later, especially for SIRT4. Niacin restriction, which decreases NAD(+), the sirtuin substrate, results in an increase in acetylated proteins, upregulation of SIRTs 2 and 4, increased inherent DNA damage, alterations in SIRT responses to photodamage, abrogation of PARP activation following photodamage, and increased sensitivity to photodamage that is completely reversed by repleting niacin. These data support the hypothesis that SIRTs and PARPs play important roles in resistance to photodamage and identify specific SIRTs that respond to photodamage and may be targets for skin cancer prevention

    Methods for Increasing Leptin Levels Using Nicotinic Acid Compounds

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    The invention relates to the use of nicotinic acid and nicotinic acid esters, such as nicotinic acid alkyl esters, to increase the amount of leptin in a subject. As a result, one can treat conditions, such as conditions characterized by wounds, by administering sufficient amounts of nicotinic acid or nicotinic acid ester to increase leptin levels to alleviating amounts. Various conditions and modes of treatment are disclosed

    Method for Identifying Regulators of Protein-Advanced Glycation End Product (Protein-Age) Formation

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    The invention relates to methods for identifying compounds which affect cellular stress. In particular, the method relates to identifying compounds which inhibit protein advanced glycation end product formation, where the compounds are carbonyl scavengers which inhibit the formation. The assay involves combing the substance of interest with histone H1 and ADP-ribose, and then measuring fluorescence and protein cross linking. Various inhibitors of protein AGE glycation have been identified, using this assay

    Method for Inhibition of Photocarcinogenesis or Photoimmunosuppression Using Niacin

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    The invention is directed to novel methods for the suppression of photocarcinogenesis and photoimmunosuppression in mice. The novel methods comprises the step of administering to a subject a pharmaceutical composition comprising niacin and a pharmaceutical carrier

    Genes Encoding Several Poly (ADP-Ribose) Glycohydrolase (PARG) Enzymes, the Proteins and Fragments Thereof, and Antibodies Immnoreactive Therewith

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    The isolation and characterization of cDNAs encoding poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) enzymes and the amino acid sequences of PARGs from several species are described. PARG is involved in the cellular response to DNA damage and its proper function is associated with the body\u27s response to neoplastic disorder inducing agents and oxidative stress. Expression vectors containing the cDNAs and cells transformed with the vectors are described. Probes and primers that hybridize with the cDNAs are described. Expression of the cDNA in E. coli results in an enzymatically active protein of about 111 kDa and an active fragment of about 59 kDa. Methods for inhibiting PARG expression or overexpressing PARG in a subject for therapeutic benefit are described. Exemplary of PARG inhibitors are anti-sense oligonucleotides. The invention has implications for treatment of neoplastic disorder, heart attack, stroke, and neurodegenerative diseases. Methods for detecting a mutant PARG allele are also described. Antibodies immunoreactive with PARGs and fragments thereof are described
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