868 research outputs found

    Geospatial distribution and population substructure of subgroups of US ethnic minorities: implications for perpetuation of health disparities and paucity of precision medicine

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    Substructure due to familial-associated divisions exists in all large populations. Geographical heterogeneity in US ethnic minorities is a function of historical, social, political, and economic factors overlaying regional geographical biodiversity. Using geospatial, historical, demographic, genetic, and epidemiological databases, we identify 40 US microethnic isolates across the US, the ā€œminorities within ethnic minoritiesā€ and locate their geospatial distributions within the US. Key components of the environment relevant to health disparities are identified and elaborated in terms of their impact on genomics. US ethnic minority microethnic isolates often have distinct genetic and social histories from the US ethnic majority that put these isolates at a disadvantage in the quest for access to relevant, precision medicine because of the magnitude of imbedded (North Atlantic Euro-American) bias in the existing databases. However, these microethnic isolates are also at a disadvantage when simply aggregated with their nearest ethnic minority macroethnic group (e.g., generic African American). The use of geospatial and ethnographic analyses has the potential to accelerate the accurate identification of heretofore disadvantaged subgroups of ethnic minority groups, bringing them into the mainstream of genomic diversity studies and healthcare acces

    Patient attitudes to sternotomy and thoracotomy scars

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    Young adults with congenital heart defects expressed dissatisfaction with their surgical scar. The impact extended to their social life and ability to form close relationships, and has implications for holistic practice. Presented at Association for European Paediatric Cardiology conference in Munich


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    Objective: The objective of this work is to evaluate antioxidant and anti-microbial activity of methanolic extract of Omani Cymbopogan schoenanthus.Methods: Antibacterial activity of mehanolic extract of Cymbopogan was evaluated by agar well diffusion method along with positive controls (Streptomycin, tetracycline and chloramphenicol). Antioxidant activity of the mehanolic extract of C. schoenanthus was done by 1, 1-diphenyl-2picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay.Results: The results indicate that the methanolic extract of C. schoenanthus is able to restrict the growth of organisms such E. coli, Klebsiella, Staphylococcus and Bacillus partially and it is not an effective antibacterial agent. In addition, the extract can scavenge the DPPH in vitro better than ascorbic acid (1 mg/ml).Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge this is the first report on Omani C. schoenanthus as an antibacterial and antioxidant agent. Characterization of active principle responsible for observed biological activities is ongoing in our laboratory.Keywords: Antibacterial, Antioxidant, Cymbopogon, Oman

    Cancer in an Historic Washington DC African American Population and Its Geospatial Distribution

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    Background: Cancer continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the African American community but insights into the types and incidence of cancer 85 years ago have been virtually non-existent and little is known of its geospatial distribution. Historical information on cancer can shed light on current health disparities, particularly among African Americans.Objective: The aims of this study were to: (1) assess the frequencies of the cancer types present among Cobb Collection individuals; (2) compare these data with current research on cancer in African Americans; and (3) evaluate the pattern of cancer expression, including its geospatial distributions, as a cause of death between 1931 and 1969 in an historic African American subgroup and compare this pattern with the historic and contemporary patterns of cancer etiology and incidence.Methods: Systematic assessments of the existing clinical, demographic, and anatomical records in the Cobb Research Laboratory were made of individuals identified as dying from specific cancers from 1931 to 1969. These were compared with the national profiles of cancer during the historic time an individual died as well as the contemporary patterns of cancer deaths. Analysis of their residential addresses just prior to death were assessed using a commercial geographic information system. Each location was assigned a geospatial location and proximity between each site and clusters of sites were investigated.Results: Seventeen different cancer types were found within 28 individuals of the Cobb Collection between 1931 and 1969. The cancer types with the highest frequencies were carcinoma of stomach, lung, esophagus, larynx and bronchogenic carcinoma. Eighty-four percent of all cancer incidents occurred in males and 76% were among individuals identified as African American. Seventy-one percent of the highest incidence cancers were among African American males. Geospatial clustering was observed most noticeably in the redistribution of carcinoma of the esophagus.Conclusion: Our results provide historical depth to our knowledge of the common cancer causes of morbidity among African Americans of Washington DC from 1931 to 1969. We contrast these findings with national historical data on cancer etiology and ethnic disparities in incidence. Our study suggests that historic data can provide longitudinal depth to our understanding of the persistence of cancer susceptibilities in a vulnerable subgroup

    The cost-effectiveness of oral contraceptives compared to ā€˜no hormonal treatmentā€™ for endometriosis-related pain: An economic evaluation

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    <div><p>Objective</p><p>To develop a preliminary cost-effectiveness model that compares oral contraceptives and ā€˜no hormonal treatmentā€™ for the treatment of endometriosis-related pain.</p><p>Methods</p><p>A <i>de novo</i> preliminary state transition (Markov) model was developed. The model was informed by systematic literature review and expert opinion. The uncertainty around the results was assessed both by deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. The economic evaluation was conducted from National Health Service (NHS) England perspective. The main outcome measure was incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY), with cost-effectiveness plane and cost-effectiveness acceptability curves presented for alternative willingness-to-pay thresholds.</p><p>Results</p><p>Oral contraceptives dominated ā€˜no hormonal treatmentā€™ and provided more QALYs at a lower cost than ā€˜no hormonal treatmentā€™, with a cost-effectiveness probability of 98%. A one-way sensitivity analysis excluding general practitioner consultations showed that oral contraceptives were still cost-effective.</p><p>Conclusions</p><p>The analyses showed that oral contraceptives could be an effective option for the treatment of endometriosis, as this treatment was shown to provide a higher level of QALYs at a lower cost, compared to ā€˜no hormonal treatmentā€™. The results are subject to considerable parameter uncertainty as a range of assumptions were required as part of the modelling process.</p></div

    Population dynamics of rhesus macaques and associated foamy virus in Bangladesh.

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    Foamy viruses are complex retroviruses that have been shown to be transmitted from nonhuman primates to humans. In Bangladesh, infection with simian foamy virus (SFV) is ubiquitous among rhesus macaques, which come into contact with humans in diverse locations and contexts throughout the country. We analyzed microsatellite DNA from 126 macaques at six sites in Bangladesh in order to characterize geographic patterns of macaque population structure. We also included in this study 38 macaques owned by nomadic people who train them to perform for audiences. PCR was used to analyze a portion of the proviral gag gene from all SFV-positive macaques, and multiple clones were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis was used to infer long-term patterns of viral transmission. Analyses of SFV gag gene sequences indicated that macaque populations from different areas harbor genetically distinct strains of SFV, suggesting that geographic features such as forest cover play a role in determining the dispersal of macaques and SFV. We also found evidence suggesting that humans traveling the region with performing macaques likely play a role in the translocation of macaques and SFV. Our studies found that individual animals can harbor more than one strain of SFV and that presence of more than one SFV strain is more common among older animals. Some macaques are infected with SFV that appears to be recombinant. These findings paint a more detailed picture of how geographic and sociocultural factors influence the spectrum of simian-borne retroviruses

    Dental Findings in Cornelia De Lange Syndrome

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    Cornelia de Lange syndrome is a congenital disease, basically characterized by psychomotor retardation associated with a series of malformations, including mainly skeletal, craniofacial deformities together with gastrointestinal and cardiac malformations. There is no definitive biochemical or chromosomal marker for the prenatal diagnosis of this syndrome. We actually want to present the case of a 10-year-old patient, who was admitted to our clinic for dental pain. The patient had the symptoms of Cornelia de Lange syndrome. During the oral examination of this patient, the patient was found to have the typical symptoms of Cornelia de Lange syndrome, such as micrognathia and delayed eruption in conjunction with the symptoms of the Hutchinson's syndrome, which had never been reported before

    Assessment of the Draft AIAA S-119 Flight Dynamic Model Exchange Standard

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    An assessment of a draft AIAA standard for flight dynamics model exchange, ANSI/AIAA S-119-2011, was conducted on behalf of NASA by a team from the NASA Engineering and Safety Center. The assessment included adding the capability of importing standard models into real-time simulation facilities at several NASA Centers as well as into analysis simulation tools. All participants were successful at importing two example models into their respective simulation frameworks by using existing software libraries or by writing new import tools. Deficiencies in the libraries and format documentation were identified and fixed; suggestions for improvements to the standard were provided to the AIAA. An innovative tool to generate C code directly from such a model was developed. Performance of the software libraries compared favorably with compiled code. As a result of this assessment, several NASA Centers can now import standard models directly into their simulations. NASA is considering adopting the now-published S-119 standard as an internal recommended practice
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