66,661 research outputs found

### Reduction of the hydrophobic attraction between charged solutes in water

We examine the effective force between two nanometer scale solutes in water
by Molecular Dynamics simulations. Macroscopic considerations predict a strong
reduction of the hydrophobic attraction between solutes when the latter are
charged. This is confirmed by the simulations which point to a surprising
constancy of the effective force between oppositely charged solutes at contact,
while like charged solutes lead to significantly different behavior between
positive and negative pairs. The latter exhibit the phenomenon of ``like-charge
attraction" previously observed in some colloidal dispersions.Comment: 4 pages, 5 figure

### Competition of hydrophobic and Coulombic interactions between nano-sized solutes

The solvation of charged, nanometer-sized spherical solutes in water, and the
effective, solvent-induced force between two such solutes are investigated by
constant temperature and pressure Molecular Dynamics simulations of model
solutes carrying various charge patterns. The results for neutral solutes agree
well with earlier findings, and with predictions of simple macroscopic
considerations: substantial hydrophobic attraction may be traced back to strong
depletion (``drying'') of the solvent between the solutes. This hydrophobic
attraction is strongly reduced when the solutes are uniformly charged, and the
total force becomes repulsive at sufficiently high charge; there is a
significant asymmetry between anionic and cationic solute pairs, the latter
experiencing a lesser hydrophobic attraction. The situation becomes more
complex when the solutes carry discrete (rather than uniform) charge patterns.
Due to antagonistic effects of the resulting hydrophilic and hydrophobic
``patches'' on the solvent molecules, water is once more significantly depleted
around the solutes, and the effective interaction reverts to being mainly
attractive, despite the direct electrostatic repulsion between solutes.
Examination of a highly coarse-grained configurational probability density
shows that the relative orientation of the two solutes is very different in
explicit solvent, compared to the prediction of the crude implicit solvent
representation. The present study strongly suggests that a realistic modeling
of the charge distribution on the surface of globular proteins, as well as the
molecular treatment of water are essential prerequisites for any reliable study
of protein aggregation.Comment: 20 pages, 25 figure

### Comments on "State equation for the three-dimensional system of 'collapsing' hard spheres"

A recent paper [I. Klebanov et al. \emph{Mod. Phys. Lett. B} \textbf{22}
(2008) 3153; arXiv:0712.0433] claims that the exact solution of the
Percus-Yevick (PY) integral equation for a system of hard spheres plus a step
potential is obtained. The aim of this paper is to show that Klebanov et al.'s
result is incompatible with the PY equation since it violates two known cases:
the low-density limit and the hard-sphere limit.Comment: 4 pages; v2: title chang

### A fundamental measure theory for the sticky hard sphere fluid

We construct a density functional theory (DFT) for the sticky hard sphere
(SHS) fluid which, like Rosenfeld's fundamental measure theory (FMT) for the
hard sphere fluid [Phys. Rev. Lett. {\bf 63}, 980 (1989)], is based on a set of
weighted densities and an exact result from scaled particle theory (SPT). It is
demonstrated that the excess free energy density of the inhomogeneous SHS fluid
$\Phi_{\text{SHS}}$ is uniquely defined when (a) it is solely a function of the
weighted densities from Kierlik and Rosinberg's version of FMT [Phys. Rev. A
{\bf 42}, 3382 (1990)], (b) it satisfies the SPT differential equation, and (c)
it yields any given direct correlation function (DCF) from the class of
generalized Percus-Yevick closures introduced by Gazzillo and Giacometti [J.
Chem. Phys. {\bf 120}, 4742 (2004)]. The resulting DFT is shown to be in very
good agreement with simulation data. In particular, this FMT yields the correct
contact value of the density profiles with no adjustable parameters. Rather
than requiring higher order DCFs, such as perturbative DFTs, our SHS FMT
produces them. Interestingly, although equivalent to Kierlik and Rosinberg's
FMT in the case of hard spheres, the set of weighted densities used for
Rosenfeld's original FMT is insufficient for constructing a DFT which yields
the SHS DCF.Comment: 11 pages, 3 figure

### On the equivalence between the energy and virial routes to the equation of state of hard-sphere fluids

The energy route to the equation of state of hard-sphere fluids is
ill-defined since the internal energy is just that of an ideal gas and thus it
is independent of density. It is shown that this ambiguity can be avoided by
considering a square-shoulder interaction and taking the limit of vanishing
shoulder width. The resulting hard-sphere equation of state coincides exactly
with the one obtained through the virial route. Therefore, the energy and
virial routes to the equation of state of hard-sphere fluids can be considered
as equivalent.Comment: 2 page

### Laboratory simulations of solar prominence eruptions

Spheromak technology is exploited to create laboratory simulations of solar prominence eruptions. It is found that the initial simulated prominences are arched, but then bifurcate into twisted secondary structures which appear to follow fringing field lines. A simple model explains many of these topological features in terms of the trajectories of field lines associated with relaxed states, i.e., states satisfying [del] Ã— B = lambda B. This model indicates that the field line concept is more fundamental than the flux tube concept because a field line can always be defined by specifying a starting point whereas attempting to define a flux tube by specifying a starting cross section typically works only if lambda is small. The model also shows that, at least for plasma evolving through a sequence of force-free states, the oft-used line-tying concept is in error. Contrary to the predictions of line-tying, direct integration of field line trajectories shows explicitly that when lambda is varied, both ends of field lines intersecting a flux-conserving plane do not remain anchored to fixed points in that plane. Finally, a simple explanation is provided for the S-shaped magnetic structures often seen on the sun; the S shape is shown to be an automatic consequence of field line arching and the parallelism between magnetic field and current density for force-free states

### Clustering and gelation of hard spheres induced by the Pickering effect

A mixture of hard-sphere particles and model emulsion droplets is studied
with a Brownian dynamics simulation. We find that the addition of nonwetting
emulsion droplets to a suspension of pure hard spheres can lead to both
gas-liquid and fluid-solid phase separations. Furthermore, we find a stable
fluid of hard-sphere clusters. The stability is due to the saturation of the
attraction that occurs when the surface of the droplets is completely covered
with colloidal particles. At larger emulsion droplet densities a percolation
transition is observed. The resulting networks of colloidal particles show
dynamical and mechanical properties typical of a colloidal gel. The results of
the model are in good qualitative agreement with recent experimental findings
[E. Koos and N. Willenbacher, Science 331, 897 (2011)] in a mixture of
colloidal particles and two immiscible fluids.Comment: 5 figures, 5 page

### Self-consistent Ornstein-Zernike approximation for molecules with soft cores

The Self-Consistent Ornstein-Zernike Approximation (SCOZA) is an accurate
liquid state theory. So far it has been tied to interactions composed of hard
core repulsion and long-range attraction, whereas real molecules have soft core
repulsion at short distances. In the present work, this is taken into account
through the introduction of an effective hard core with a diameter that depends
upon temperature only. It is found that the contribution to the configurational
internal energy due to the repulsive reference fluid is of prime importance and
must be included in the thermodynamic self-consistency requirement on which
SCOZA is based. An approximate but accurate evaluation of this contribution
relies on the virial theorem to gauge the amplitude of the pair distribution
function close to the molecular surface. Finally, the SCOZA equation is
transformed by which the problem is reformulated in terms of the usual SCOZA
with fixed hard core reference system and temperature-dependent interaction

### Relaxation in a glassy binary mixture: Mode-coupling-like power laws, dynamic heterogeneity and a new non-Gaussian parameter

We examine the relaxation of the Kob-Andersen Lennard-Jones binary mixture
using Brownian dynamics computer simulations. We find that in accordance with
mode-coupling theory the self-diffusion coefficient and the relaxation time
show power-law dependence on temperature. However, different mode-coupling
temperatures and power laws can be obtained from the simulation data depending
on the range of temperatures chosen for the power-law fits. The temperature
that is commonly reported as this system's mode-coupling transition
temperature, in addition to being obtained from a power law fit, is a crossover
temperature at which there is a change in the dynamics from the high
temperature homogeneous, diffusive relaxation to a heterogeneous, hopping-like
motion. The hopping-like motion is evident in the probability distributions of
the logarithm of single-particle displacements: approaching the commonly
reported mode-coupling temperature these distributions start exhibiting two
peaks. Notably, the temperature at which the hopping-like motion appears for
the smaller particles is slightly higher than that at which the hopping-like
motion appears for the larger ones. We define and calculate a new non-Gaussian
parameter whose maximum occurs approximately at the time at which the two peaks
in the probability distribution of the logarithm of displacements are most
evident.Comment: Submitted for publication in Phys. Rev.

### Many-body interactions and correlations in coarse-grained descriptions of polymer solutions

We calculate the two, three, four, and five-body (state independent)
effective potentials between the centers of mass (CM) of self avoiding walk
polymers by Monte-Carlo simulations. For full overlap, these coarse-grained
n-body interactions oscillate in sign as (-1)^n, and decrease in absolute
magnitude with increasing n. We find semi-quantitative agreement with a scaling
theory, and use this to discuss how the coarse-grained free energy converges
when expanded to arbitrary order in the many-body potentials. We also derive
effective {\em density dependent} 2-body potentials which exactly reproduce the
pair-correlations between the CM of the self avoiding walk polymers. The
density dependence of these pair potentials can be largely understood from the
effects of the {\em density independent} 3-body potential. Triplet correlations
between the CM of the polymers are surprisingly well, but not exactly,
described by our coarse-grained effective pair potential picture. In fact, we
demonstrate that a pair-potential cannot simultaneously reproduce the two and
three body correlations in a system with many-body interactions. However, the
deviations that do occur in our system are very small, and can be explained by
the direct influence of 3-body potentials.Comment: 11 pages, 1 table, 9 figures, RevTeX (revtex.cls

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