388 research outputs found

    The sensitivity of oceanic precipitation to sea surface temperature

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    Our study forms the oceanic counterpart to numerous observational studies over land concerning the sensitivity of extreme precipitation to a change in air temperature. We explore the sensitivity of oceanic precipitation to changing sea surface temperature (SST) by exploiting two novel datasets at high resolution. First, we use the Ocean Rainfall And Ice-phase precipitation measurement Network (OceanRAIN) as an observational along-track shipboard dataset at 1 min resolution. Second, we exploit the most recent European Reanalysis version 5 (ERA5) at hourly resolution on a 31 km grid. Matched with each other, ERA5 vertical velocity allows the constraint of the OceanRAIN precipitation. Despite the inhomogeneous sampling along ship tracks, OceanRAIN agrees with ERA5 on the average latitudinal distribution of precipitation with fairly good seasonal sampling. However, the 99th percentile of OceanRAIN precipitation follows a super Clausius–Clapeyron scaling with a SST that exceeds 8.5 % K−1 while ERA5 precipitation scales with 4.5 % K−1. The sensitivity decreases towards lower precipitation percentiles, while OceanRAIN keeps an almost constant offset to ERA5 due to higher spatial resolution and temporal sampling. Unlike over land, we find no evidence for a decreasing precipitation event duration with increasing SST. ERA5 precipitation reaches a local minimum at about 26 ∘C that vanishes when constraining vertical velocity to strongly rising motion and excluding areas of weak correlation between precipitation and vertical velocity. This indicates that instead of moisture limitations as over land, circulation dynamics rather limit precipitation formation over the ocean. For the strongest rising motion, precipitation scaling converges to a constant value at all precipitation percentiles. Overall, high resolutions in observations and climate models are key to understanding and predicting the sensitivity of oceanic precipitation extremes to a change in SST

    An experimental study to discriminate between the validity of diffraction theories for off-Bragg replay

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    We show that experiments clearly verify the assumptions made by the first-order two-wave coupling theory for one dimensional lossless unslanted planar volume holographic gratings using the beta-value method rather than Kogelnik's K-vector closure method. Apart from the fact that the diffraction process is elastic, a much more striking difference between the theories becomes apparent particularly in the direction of the diffracted beam in off-Bragg replay. We therefore monitored the direction of the diffracted beam as a function of the off-Bragg replay angle in two distinct cases: [a] the diffracted beam lies in the plane of incidence and [b] the sample surface normal, the grating vector and the incoming beam do not form a plane which calls for the vectorial theory and results in conical scattering.Comment: Corrected Eqs. (3) & (6); 14 pages, 8 figure

    Zero-field and Larmor spinor precessions in a neutron polarimeter experiment

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    We present a neutron polarimetric experiment where two kinds of spinor precessions are observed: one is induced by different total energy of neutrons (zero-field precession) and the other is induced by a stationary guide field (Larmor precession). A characteristic of the former is the dependence of the energy-difference, which is in practice tuned by the frequency of the interacting oscillating magnetic field. In contrast the latter completely depends on the strength of the guide field, namely Larmor frequency. Our neutron-polarimetric experiment exhibits individual tuning as well as specific properties of each spinor precession, which assures the use of both spin precessions for multi-entangled spinor manipulation.Comment: 12 pages, 4 figure

    New Aspects of Geometric Phases in Experiments with polarized Neutrons

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    Geometric phase phenomena in single neutrons have been observed in polarimeter and interferometer experiments. Interacting with static and time dependent magnetic fields, the state vectors acquire a geometric phase tied to the evolution within spin subspace. In a polarimeter experiment the non-additivity of quantum phases for mixed spin input states is observed. In a Si perfect-crystal interferometer experiment appearance of geometric phases, induced by interaction with an oscillating magnetic field, is verified. The total system is characterized by an entangled state, consisting of neutron and radiation fields, governed by a Jaynes-Cummings Hamiltonian. In addition, the influence of the geometric phase on a Bell measurement, expressed by the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality, is studied. It is demonstrated that the effect of geometric phase can be balanced by an appropriate change of Bell angles.Comment: 17 pages, 9 figure

    Violation of Bell-like Inequality for spin-energy entanglement in neutron polarimetry

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    Violation of a Bell-like inequality for a spin-energy entangled neutron state has been confirmed in a polarimetric experiment. The proposed inequality, in Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) formalism, relies on correlations between the spin and energy degree of freedom in a single-neutron system. The entangled states are generated utilizing a suitable combination of two radio-frequency fields in a neutron polarimeter setup. The correlation function S is determined to be 2.333+/-0.005, which violates the Bell-like CHSH inequality by more than 66 standard deviations.Comment: 4 pages 2 figure

    Observation of nonadditive mixed state phases with polarized neutrons

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    In a neutron polarimetry experiment the mixed state relative phases between spin eigenstates are determined from the maxima and minima of measured intensity oscillations. We consider evolutions leading to purely geometric, purely dynamical and combined phases. It is experimentally demonstrated that the sum of the individually determined geometric and dynamical phases is not equal to the associated total phase which is obtained from a single measurement, unless the system is in a pure state.Comment: RevTex, 4 pages, 4 figures, accepted by PR

    Simulation of ship-track versus satellite-sensor differences in oceanic precipitation using an island-based radar

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    The point-to-area problem strongly complicates the validation of satellite-based precipitation estimates, using surface-based point measurements. We simulate the limited spatial representation of light to moderate oceanic precipitation rates along ship tracks with respect to areal passive microwave satellite estimates using data from a subtropical island-based radar. The radar data serves to estimate the discrepancy between point-like and areal precipitation measurements. From the spatial discrepancy, two statistical adjustments are derived so that along-track precipitation ship data better represents areal precipitation estimates from satellite sensors. The first statistical adjustment uses the average duration of a precipitation event as seen along a ship track and the second adjustment uses the median-normalized along-track precipitation rate. Both statistical adjustments combined reduce the root mean squared error by 0.24 mm h 10 (55%) compared to the unadjusted average track of 60 radar pixels in length corresponding to a typical ship speed of 24–34 km h depending on track orientation. Beyond along-track averaging, the statistical adjustments represent an important step towards a more accurate validation of precipitation derived from passive microwave satellite sensors using point-like along-track surface precipitation reference data