3,477 research outputs found

    Coverage, capacity and energy efficiency analysis in the uplink of mmWave cellular networks

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    In this paper, using the concept of stochastic geometry, we present an analytical framework to evaluate the signal-to-interference-and-noise-ratio (SINR) coverage in the uplink of millimeter wave cellular networks. By using a distance-dependent line-of-sight (LOS) probability function, the location of LOS and non-LOS users are modeled as two independent non-homogeneous Poisson point processes, with each having a different pathloss exponent. The analysis takes account of per-user fractional power control (FPC), which couples the transmission of users based on location-dependent channel inversion. We consider the following scenarios in our analysis: 1) Pathloss-based FPC (PL-FPC) which is performed using the measured pathloss and 2) Distance-based FPC (D-FPC) which is performed using the measured distance. Using the developed framework, we derive expressions for the area spectral efficiency and energy efficiency. Results suggest that in terms of SINR coverage, D-FPC outperforms PL-FPC scheme at high SINR where the future networks are expected to operate. It achieves equal or better area spectral efficiency and energy efficiency compared with the PL-FPC scheme. Contrary to the conventional ultra-high frequency cellular networks, in both FPC schemes, the SINR coverage decreases as the cell density becomes greater than a threshold, while the area spectral efficiency experiences a slow growth region

    Coverage Analysis in the Uplink of mmWave Cellular Network

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    In this paper, we present an analytical framework to evaluate the coverage in the uplink of millimeter wave (mmWave) cellular networks. By using a distance dependent line-of-sight (LOS) probability function, the location of LOS and non-LOS user equipment (UE) are modeled as two independent non-homogeneous Poisson point processes, with each having different pathloss exponent. The analysis takes account of per UE fractional power control (FPC), which couples the transmission of UE due to location-dependent channel inversion. We consider the following scenarios in our analysis: (1) Pathloss based FPC (PL-FPC) which is performed using the measured pathloss and (2) Distance based FPC (D-FPC) which is performed using the measured distance. Results suggest that D-FPC outperforms the PL-FPC at high SINR. Also, the SINR coverage probability decreases as the cell density becomes greater than a threshold

    Participatory sensing as an enabler for self-organisation in future cellular networks

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    In this short review paper we summarise the emerging challenges in the field of participatory sensing for the self-organisation of the next generation of wireless cellular networks. We identify the potential of participatory sensing in enabling the self-organisation, deployment optimisation and radio resource management of wireless cellular networks. We also highlight how this approach can meet the future goals for the next generation of cellular system in terms of infrastructure sharing, management of multiple radio access techniques, flexible usage of spectrum and efficient management of very small data cells

    On Energy Efficient Inter-Frequency Small Cell Discovery in Heterogeneous Networks

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    In this paper, we investigate the optimal inter-frequency small cell discovery (ISCD) periodicity for small cells deployed on carrier frequency other than that of the serving macro cell. We consider that the small cells and user terminals (UTs) positions are modelled according to a homogeneous Poisson Point Process (PPP). We utilize polynomial curve fitting to approximate the percentage of time the typical UT missed small cell offloading opportunity, for a fixed small cell density and fixed UT speed. We then derive analytically, the optimal ISCD periodicity that minimizes the average UT energy consumption (EC). Furthermore, we also derive the optimal ISCD periodicity that maximizes the average energy efficiency (EE), i.e. bit-per-joule capacity. Results show that the EC optimal ISCD periodicity always exceeds the EE optimal ISCD periodicity, with the exception of when the average ergodic rates in both tiers are equal, in which the optimal ISCD periodicity in both cases also becomes equal

    Impact of Positioning Error on Achievable Spectral Efficiency in Database-Aided Networks

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    Database-aided user association, where users are associated with data base stations (BSs) based on a database which stores their geographical location with signal-to-noise-ratio tagging, will play a vital role in the futuristic cellular architecture with separated control and data planes. However, such approach can lead to inaccurate user-data BS association, as a result of the inaccuracies in the positioning technique, thus leading to sub-optimal performance. In this paper, we investigate the impact of database-aided user association approach on the average spectral efficiency (ASE). We model the data plane base stations using its fluid model equivalent and derive the ASE for the channel model with pathloss only and when shadowing is incorporated. Our results show that the ASE in database-aided networks degrades as the accuracy of the user positioning technique decreases. Hence, system specifications for database-aided networks must take account of inaccuracies in positioning techniques

    Separation Framework: An Enabler for Cooperative and D2D Communication for Future 5G Networks

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    Soaring capacity and coverage demands dictate that future cellular networks need to soon migrate towards ultra-dense networks. However, network densification comes with a host of challenges that include compromised energy efficiency, complex interference management, cumbersome mobility management, burdensome signaling overheads and higher backhaul costs. Interestingly, most of the problems, that beleaguer network densification, stem from legacy networks' one common feature i.e., tight coupling between the control and data planes regardless of their degree of heterogeneity and cell density. Consequently, in wake of 5G, control and data planes separation architecture (SARC) has recently been conceived as a promising paradigm that has potential to address most of aforementioned challenges. In this article, we review various proposals that have been presented in literature so far to enable SARC. More specifically, we analyze how and to what degree various SARC proposals address the four main challenges in network densification namely: energy efficiency, system level capacity maximization, interference management and mobility management. We then focus on two salient features of future cellular networks that have not yet been adapted in legacy networks at wide scale and thus remain a hallmark of 5G, i.e., coordinated multipoint (CoMP), and device-to-device (D2D) communications. After providing necessary background on CoMP and D2D, we analyze how SARC can particularly act as a major enabler for CoMP and D2D in context of 5G. This article thus serves as both a tutorial as well as an up to date survey on SARC, CoMP and D2D. Most importantly, the article provides an extensive outlook of challenges and opportunities that lie at the crossroads of these three mutually entangled emerging technologies.Comment: 28 pages, 11 figures, IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials 201

    Self organization of tilts in relay enhanced networks: a distributed solution

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    Despite years of physical-layer research, the capacity enhancement potential of relays is limited by the additional spectrum required for Base Station (BS)-Relay Station (RS) links. This paper presents a novel distributed solution by exploiting a system level perspective instead. Building on a realistic system model with impromptu RS deployments, we develop an analytical framework for tilt optimization that can dynamically maximize spectral efficiency of both the BS-RS and BS-user links in an online manner. To obtain a distributed self-organizing solution, the large scale system-wide optimization problem is decomposed into local small scale subproblems by applying the design principles of self-organization in biological systems. The local subproblems are non-convex, but having a very small scale, can be solved via standard nonlinear optimization techniques such as sequential quadratic programming. The performance of the developed solution is evaluated through extensive simulations for an LTE-A type system and compared against a number of benchmarks including a centralized solution obtained via brute force, that also gives an upper bound to assess the optimality gap. Results show that the proposed solution can enhance average spectral efficiency by up to 50% compared to fixed tilting, with negligible signaling overheads. The key advantage of the proposed solution is its potential for autonomous and distributed implementation

    A survey of self organisation in future cellular networks

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    This article surveys the literature over the period of the last decade on the emerging field of self organisation as applied to wireless cellular communication networks. Self organisation has been extensively studied and applied in adhoc networks, wireless sensor networks and autonomic computer networks; however in the context of wireless cellular networks, this is the first attempt to put in perspective the various efforts in form of a tutorial/survey. We provide a comprehensive survey of the existing literature, projects and standards in self organising cellular networks. Additionally, we also aim to present a clear understanding of this active research area, identifying a clear taxonomy and guidelines for design of self organising mechanisms. We compare strength and weakness of existing solutions and highlight the key research areas for further development. This paper serves as a guide and a starting point for anyone willing to delve into research on self organisation in wireless cellular communication networks

    Temporal and spatial combining for 5G mmWave small cells

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    This chapter proposes the combination of temporal processing through Rake combining based on direct sequence-spread spectrum (DS-SS), and multiple antenna beamforming or antenna spatial diversity as a possible physical layer access technique for fifth generation (5G) small cell base stations (SBS) operating in the millimetre wave (mmWave) frequencies. Unlike earlier works in the literature aimed at previous generation wireless, the use of the beamforming is presented as operating in the radio frequency (RF) domain, rather than the baseband domain, to minimise power expenditure as a more suitable method for 5G small cells. Some potential limitations associated with massive multiple input-multiple output (MIMO) for small cells are discussed relating to the likely limitation on available antennas and resultant beamwidth. Rather than relying, solely, on expensive and potentially power hungry massive MIMO (which in the case of a SBS for indoor use will be limited by a physically small form factor) the use of a limited number of antennas, complimented with Rake combining, or antenna diversity is given consideration for short distance indoor communications for both the SBS) and user equipment (UE). The proposal’s aim is twofold: to solve eroded path loss due to the effective antenna aperture reduction and to satisfy sensitivity to blockages and multipath dispersion in indoor, small coverage area base stations. Two candidate architectures are proposed. With higher data rates, more rigorous analysis of circuit power and its effect on energy efficiency (EE) is provided. A detailed investigation is provided into the likely design and signal processing requirements. Finally, the proposed architectures are compared to current fourth generation long term evolution (LTE) MIMO technologies for their anticipated power consumption and EE
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