757 research outputs found

    Genetic and Epigenetic Marker-Based DNA Test of Stool Is a Promising Approach for Colorectal Cancer Screening

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    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignancies and leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the world.1 However, it may be treated effectively by surgical removal of the cancerous tissue if detected at early stages. Conventional tools for screening CRC are either invasive or inaccurate. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop a reliable screening tools for CRC to significantly reduce its morbidity. In this regard, a novel DNA markers-based detection in stool is emerging as a promising approach

    Integrative Survival Response Evoked by Heme Oxygenase-1 and Heme Metabolites

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    Heme oxygenase (HO) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in heme degradation to produce carbon monoxide (CO), iron, and biliverdin. Biliverdin is subsequently converted to bilirubin by its reductase, and iron is recycled for heme synthesis. The inducible HO isoform, HO-1, is involved in the protection of multiple tissues and organs. The mechanism of protective actions of HO-1 has not been completely elucidated, but recent evidence suggests that one or more of heme metabolites can mediate the protective effects of HO-1. Particularly, CO mimics the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and antiproliferative actions of HO-1. Many of these effects of CO depend on the production of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), and the modulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. The transcription factors, including nuclear factor E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2), and their upstream kinases, including MAPK pathway, play an important regulatory role in HO-1 expression by dietary antioxidants and drugs. This review attempts to concisely summarize the molecular and biochemical characteristics of HO-1, with a discussion on the mechanisms of signal transduction and gene regulation that mediate the induction of HO-1 by dietary antioxidants and drugs. In addition, the cytoprotective roles of HO-1 shall be discussed from the perspective of each of the metabolic by-products

    Understanding International Students' Learning Experiences of English as a Medium of Instruction Courses

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    This study aims to understand international students' learning experiences in English as a medium of instruction (EMI) courses in a private Korean university. By using mixed-method research, this study collected two data sources, including 1) an online survey (n=46) and 2) an individual in-depth interview (n=4) at the end of the 2022 Spring semester. The study results are summarized as follows. First, EMI courses could enhance international students' content knowledge development effectively. Second, EMI courses could improve international students' English proficiency in terms of reading and vocabulary ability. Third, international students showed high satisfaction with EMI courses and are willing to take EMI courses continuously. However, the interview analysis showed that it was challenging for a few international students to improve their English speaking ability due to limited opportunities to speak English during graduate-level courses. These study results suggest several recommendations to provide practical EMI courses for teaching diverse international students, including English language learners in higher education

    Arrhythmia surgery for atrial fibrillation associated with atrial septal defect: Right-sided maze versus biatrial maze

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    BackgroundAlthough it has been inferred that a biatrial maze procedure for atrial fibrillation in left-sided heart lesions may lead to better outcomes compared with a limited left atrial lesion set, it remains controversial whether the biatrial maze procedure is superior to the right atrial maze procedure in right-sided heart lesions.MethodsA retrospective review was performed for 56 adults who underwent surgical closure of atrial septal defect and various maze procedures for atrial fibrillation between June 1998 and February 2011. The median age at operation was 59 years (range, 34-79 years). Clinical manifestations of atrial fibrillation were paroxysmal in 8 patients, persistent in 15 patients, and long-standing persistent in 33 patients. A right atrial maze procedure was performed in 23 patients (group 1), and a biatrial maze procedure was performed in 33 patients (group 2). Treatment failure was defined as atrial fibrillation recurrence, development of atrial flutter or other types of atrial tachyarrhythmia, or implantation of a permanent pacemaker. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to identify risk factors for decreased time to treatment failure.ResultsDuring the median follow-up period of 49 months (range, 5-149 months), there was no early death and 1 late noncardiac death. On Cox survival model, group 1 showed a significantly decreased time to treatment failure in comparison with group 2 (hazard ratio, 5.11; 95% confidence interval, 1.59-16.44; P = .006). Maintenance of normal sinus rhythm without any episode of atrial fibrillation recurrence at 2 and 5 years postoperatively was 57% and 45% in group 1, respectively, and 82% and 69% in group 2, respectively.ConclusionsLeft-sided ablation in addition to a right atrial maze procedure leads to better electrophysiologic outcome in atrial fibrillation associated with atrial septal defect

    Improving the prediction accuracy in classification using the combined data sets by ranks of gene expressions

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>The information from different data sets experimented under different conditions may be inconsistent even though they are performed with the same research objectives. More than that, even when the data sets were generated from the same platform, the data agreement may be affected by the technical variation among the laboratories. In this case, it is necessary to use the combined data set after adjusting the differences between such data sets, for detecting the more reliable information.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>The proposed method combines data sets posterior to the discretization of data sets based on the ranks of the gene expression ratios, and the statistical method is applied to the combined data set for predictive gene selection. The efficiency of the proposed method was evaluated using five colon cancer related data sets, which were experimented using cDNA microarrays with different RNA sources, and one experiment utilized oligonucleotide arrays. NCI-60 cell lines data sets were used, which were performed with two different platforms of cDNA microarrays and Affymetrix HU6800 oligonucleotide arrays. The combined data set by the proposed method predicted the test data sets more accurately than the separated data sets did. The biological significant genes were detected from the combined data set, which were missed on the separated data sets.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>By transforming gene expressions using ranks, the proposed method is not influenced by systematic bias among chips and normalization method. The method may be especially more useful to find predictive genes from data sets which have different scale in gene expressions.</p