81 research outputs found

    Relative distance perception of sound sources in critical listening environment via binaural reproduction

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    Accurate distance cues are important in the degree of realism provided by virtual audio systems. In the last decade there has been an increased interest in this research area. The main focus of this research project is to investigate the effect of different acoustic cues related to distance perception, such as Direct to Reverberant ratio (D/R), in the perception of the relative distance between sound sources in a virtual medium sized critical listening room. The virtual sources were generated by convolving a dry speech signal with modelled and measured BRIRs. The BRIRs were modelled using a direction related image source model for the early reflections and exponentially decaying noise for the reverb tail. In order to investigate relative distance perception and the factors that affect it, a pairwise comparison was conducted involving twenty- three subjects. Three different distances ranging between 1.0m and 3.0m were used in the comparison pairs. The main outcomes from the tests are: 1) Modelled and measured BRIRs provide relative distance cues equally well; 2) Direct-to-reverberant ratio is a significant relative distance cue, even when level between virtual sources is normalized; 3) Adding level differences between the sources does not have a significant effect on the perception of relative distance. However, it reduced the precedence of wrong relative distance judgments by 5%-15%; 4) Manipulation of early reflection time of arrival (TOA) does not appear to be a significant cue in distance perception. These findings are important in the field of virtual reality and computer gaming because they show that the relative distance of a virtual source can be manipulated simply by adjusting the direct-to-reverberant ratio of the BRIRs. It can thus be concluded that large BRIR databases and interpolation between BRIRs at different distances are not required for appropriate distance cues

    Additional file 1: of Apropos: critical analysis of molluscicide application in schistosomiasis control programs in Brazil

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    Multilingual abstract in the six official working languages of the United Nations. (PDF 688 kb

    Cross-validated mixed-datatype bandwidth selection for nonparametric cumulative distribution/survivor functions

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    <p>We propose a computationally efficient data-driven least square cross-validation method to optimally select smoothing parameters for the nonparametric estimation of cumulative distribution/survivor functions. We allow for general multivariate covariates that can be continuous, discrete/ordered categorical or a mix of either. We provide asymptotic analysis, examine finite-sample properties through Monte Carlo simulation, and consider an illustration involving nonparametric copula modeling. We also demonstrate how the approach can also be used to construct a smooth Kolmogorov–Smirnov test that has a slightly better power profile than its nonsmooth counterpart.</p

    Experimental mating scheme employed to generate the two hybrid backcross-like mapping families (CC5 and CC10) and segregation of shell color in offspring.

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    <p>Experimental mating scheme employed to generate the two hybrid backcross-like mapping families (CC5 and CC10) and segregation of shell color in offspring.</p

    A Consensus Microsatellite-Based Linkage Map for the Hermaphroditic Bay Scallop (<em>Argopecten irradians</em>) and Its Application in Size-Related QTL Analysis

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    <div><p>Bay scallop (<em>Argopecten irradians</em>) is one of the most economically important aquaculture species in China. In this study, we constructed a consensus microsatellite-based genetic linkage map with a mapping panel containing two hybrid backcross-like families involving two subspecies of bay scallop, <em>A. i. irradians</em> and <em>A. i. concentricus</em>. One hundred sixty-one microsatellite and one phenotypic (shell color) markers were mapped to 16 linkage groups (LGs), which corresponds to the haploid chromosome number of bay scallop. The sex-specific map was 779.2 cM and 781.6 cM long in female and male, respectively, whereas the sex-averaged map spanned 849.3 cM. The average resolution of integrated map was 5.9 cM/locus and the estimated coverage was 81.3%. The proportion of distorted markers occurred more in the hybrid parents, suggesting that the segregation distortion was possibly resulted from heterospecific interaction between genomes of two subspecies of bay scallop. The overall female-to-male recombination rate was 1.13∶1 across all linked markers in common to both parents, and considerable differences in recombination also existed among different parents in both families. Four size-related traits, including shell length (SL), shell height (SH), shell width (SW) and total weight (TW) were measured for quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis. Three significant and six suggestive QTL were detected on five LGs. Among the three significant QTL, two (<em>qSW-10</em> and <em>qTW-10</em>, controlling SW and TW, respectively) were mapped on the same region near marker <em>AiAD121</em> on LG10 and explained 20.5% and 27.7% of the phenotypic variance, while the third (<em>qSH-7</em>, controlling SH) was located on LG7 and accounted for 15.8% of the phenotypic variance. Six suggestive QTL were detected on four different LGs. The linkage map and size-related QTL obtained in this study may facilitate marker-assisted selection (MAS) in bay scallop.</p> </div

    Size-related QTL identified in two families (CC5 and CC10) of bay scallop.

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    <p>SL, shell length; SH, shell height; TW, total weight; PVE, percentage of phenotypic variance explained by the QTL; association between four parental genotypes (f1m1, f2m1, f1m2, f2m2) of markers nearest each QTL peak and mean phenotypic values of each trait was tested by Kruskal-Wallis analysis.</p>#<p>Confidence interval at 95% significance;</p>†<p>linkage-group-wide;</p>‡<p>genome wide;</p><p>*P<0.1, **<i>P</i><0.05, *** <i>P</i><0.01, ****<i>P</i><0.005, ***** <i>P</i><0.001.</p

    Number of markers and genetic length for sex-averaged linkage map of bay scallop.

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    <p>Number of markers and genetic length for sex-averaged linkage map of bay scallop.</p

    Consensus microsatellite-based linkage map for bay scallop (<i>Argopecten irradians</i>) constructed using two hybrid backcross-like families.

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    <p>The female linkage group (left) is named as “AiF_LG”; the male linkage group (middle) is named as “AiM_LG”; the sex-averaged linkage group (right) is named as “Ai_LG”. The phenotypic maker (shell color) placed on LG 10 was underlined.</p

    Mapping significant size-related QTL.

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    <p>A, QTL for shell length on LG7; B, QTL for total weight on LG10. QTL were detected with genome-wide threshold. The QTL names are on the left of each box-bar. The significance of Kruskal-Wallis analyses are shown at the right side of linkage group (**<i>P</i><0.05, *** <i>P</i><0.01, ****<i>P</i><0.005, ***** <i>P</i><0.001).</p

    DataSheet_1_PD-L1 is associated with the prognosis of penile cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis.pdf

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    BackgroundPrevious studies have explored the role of PD-L1 in the survival outcomes of penile cancer patients with controversies existed. Thus, the meta-analysis was conducted to report and review the association between PD-L1 and survival in penile cancer patients.MethodsPubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and Web of Science were all searched, screened, and reviewed by June 1, 2022. Hazard ratio (HR) was used to evaluate the relationship between PD-L1 and survival outcome, and odds ratio (OR) was for tumor features.ResultsNine retrospective studies (1,003 patients) were incorporated. The prevalence of PD-L1 in patients with penile cancer was 51.4% (95% CI = 42.1%-60.8%, I2 = 88.5%). Higher PD-L1 on tumor cells was related to shorter cancer-specific survival (CSS) in patients (HR = 1.578, 95% CI = 1.227-2.029, I2 = 23.3%), but had no associations with overall survival (OS) (HR = 1.123, 95% CI = 0.511-2.465, I2 = 0.0%). Subgroup analysis indicated that higher PD-L1 was related to shorter CSS in Caucasus (HR = 1.827, 95% CI = 1.355-2.465, I2 = 0.0%) only. Furthermore, PD-L1 had associations with tumor stage (pT1 vs. pT2-4, OR = 0.480, 95% CI = 0.346-0.667, P = 0.001) and tumor grade (Well and moderate vs. Poor, OR = 0.377, 95% CI = 0.264-0.538, P ConclusionsPD-L1 over-expression was related to worse survival outcomes and several clinicopathological features of penile cancer. PD-L1 expression can be applied to select appropriate treatment strategies for penile malignancies.Systematic review registrationhttps://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?RecordID=343041, identifier CRD42022343041.</p
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