9,613 research outputs found

    Properties and Origin of Galaxy Velocity Bias in the Illustris Simulation

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    We use the hydrodynamical galaxy formation simulations from the Illustris suite to study the origin and properties of galaxy velocity bias, i.e., the difference between the velocity distributions of galaxies and dark matter inside halos. We find that galaxy velocity bias is a decreasing function of the ratio of galaxy stellar mass to host halo mass. In general, central galaxies are not at rest with respect to dark matter halos or the core of halos, with a velocity dispersion above 0.04 times that of the dark matter. The central galaxy velocity bias is found to be mostly caused by the close interactions between the central and satellite galaxies. For satellite galaxies, the velocity bias is related to their dynamical and tidal evolution history after being accreted onto the host halos. It depends on the time after the accretion and their distances from the halo centers, with massive satellites generally moving more slowly than the dark matter. The results are in broad agreements with those inferred from modeling small-scale redshift-space galaxy clustering data, and the study can help improve models of redshift-space galaxy clustering.Comment: 15 pages, 11 figures. Accepted for publication in Ap

    Probing signatures of bounce inflation with current observations

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    The aim of this paper is to probe the features of the bouncing cosmology with the current observational data. Basing on bounce inflation model, with high derivative term, we propose a general parametrization of primordial power spectrum which includes the typical bouncing parameters, such as bouncing time-scale, and energy scale. By applying Markov Chain Monto Carlo analysis with current data combination of Planck 2015, BAO and JLA, we report the posterior probability distributions of the parameters. We find that, bouncing models can well explain CMB observations, especially the deficit and oscillation on large scale in TT power spectrum.Comment: 17 pages, 8 figure

    Anonymity and Language Usage: A Natural Experiment of Social Network Integration

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    The Internet creates an anonymous and non-authoritarian environment where people do not have social inhibitions and can express opinions freely. However, such disinhibition at times leads to abusive use of language and uncivil behavior in the online environment. This paper leverages data from a natural experiment on an online review platform that integrated social network platform personalization features, which exposes users in an anonymous environment to a social environment. Interestingly, our preliminary findings show that after the social network platform integration, users express more emotions (specifically, they become more positive but less negative), are less likely to use inappropriate language that include sexually explicit words or words that shows rage. Further, users are less egocentric and more social in their language use. We discuss the implication of this study for creating a civil online environment

    Fish Stem Cell Cultures

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    Stem cells have the potential for self-renewal and differentiation. First stem cell cultures were derived 30 years ago from early developing mouse embryos. These are pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells. Efforts towards ES cell derivation have been attempted in other mammalian and non-mammalian species. Work with stem cell culture in fish started 20 years ago. Laboratory fish species, in particular zebrafish and medaka, have been the focus of research towards stem cell cultures. Medaka is the second organism that generated ES cells and the first that gave rise to a spermatogonial stem cell line capable of test-tube sperm production. Most recently, the first haploid stem cells capable of producing whole animals have also been generated from medaka. ES-like cells have been reported also in zebrafish and several marine species. Attempts for germline transmission of ES cell cultures and gene targeting have been reported in zebrafish. Recent years have witnessed the progress in markers and procedures for ES cell characterization. These include the identification of fish homologs/paralogs of mammalian pluripotency genes and parameters for optimal chimera formation. In addition, fish germ cell cultures and transplantation have attracted considerable interest for germline transmission and surrogate production. Haploid ES cell nuclear transfer has proven in medaka the feasibility of semi-cloning as a novel assisted reproductive technology. In this special issue on “Fish Stem Cells and Nuclear Transfer”, we will focus our review on medaka to illustrate the current status and perspective of fish stem cells in research and application. We will also mention semi-cloning as a new development to conventional nuclear transfer