75 research outputs found

    Improved Neural Processing Efficiency in a Chronic Aphasia Patient Following Melodic Intonation Therapy: A Neuropsychological and Functional MRI Study

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    Melodic intonation therapy (MIT) is a treatment program for the rehabilitation of aphasic patients with speech production disorders. We report a case of severe chronic non-fluent aphasia unresponsive to several years of conventional therapy that showed a marked improvement following intensive nine-day training on the Japanese version of MIT (MIT-J). The purposes of this study were to verify the efficacy of MIT-J by functional assessment and examine associated changes in neural processing by functional magnetic resonance imaging. MIT improved language output and auditory comprehension, and decreased the response time for picture naming. Following MIT-J, an area of the right hemisphere was less activated on correct naming trials than compared to before training but similarly activated on incorrect trials. These results suggest that the aphasic symptoms of our patient were improved by increased neural processing efficiency and a concomitant decrease in cognitive load

    CO-sensing properties of a NASICON-based gas sensor attached with Pt mixed with Bi2O3 as a sensing electrode

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    NASICON (Na3Zr2Si2PO12)-based gas sensors capable of detecting various gases (CO2, NO2, Cl2, VOC and so on) have so far been developed by many researchers. In this study, planar-type gas sensors using a NASICON disc attached with Pt mixed with Bi2O3 as a sensing electrode (Pt(nBi2O3), n (0.01?30): the amount of Bi2O3 addition (wt%)) and Pt as a reference electrode were fabricated, and their sensing properties to CO and H2 were examined in the operating temperature range of 25?300 °C in dry and wet air. The sensors obtained were denoted as Pt(nBi2O3)/Pt. All Pt(nBi2O3)/Pt sensors fabricated responded to CO at all operating temperatures tested, and the magnitude of CO response increased with a decrease in the operating temperature. In addition, the magnitude of CO response largely depended on the additive amounts of Bi2O3 to the Pt sensing electrode. The increase in the additive amount of Bi2O3 to the Pt sensing electrode (0.01 ? n ? 1) enhanced markedly the magnitude of CO response, 90% response time and CO selectivity against H2. The Pt(1Bi2O3)/Pt sensor showed a linear relationship between the CO response and the logarithm of CO concentration (1?3000 ppm) in dry air at 25 °C and the CO selectivity against H2 was enhanced in wet air, in comparison with those observed in dry air. The interfacial layer, which was formed between the NASICON and the Pt(1Bi2O3) electrode, was suggested to play an important role in improving of the CO-sensing properties

    Mortality and life expectancy of Yokkaichi Asthma patients, Japan: Late effects of air pollution in 1960–70s

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>The incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and bronchial asthma began increasing in early 1960s in the population of Yokkaichi-city (Mie Prefecture, Japan). The cause of the disease was sulfur oxide air pollution, and it is known as Yokkaichi Asthma. The pollution markedly decreased by the end of 1970s; no new cases have been reported since 1988. This study aimed at examining the late effects of air pollution on the health of Yokkaichi Asthma patients.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>Mortality rate and life expectancy of patients, registered between 1965 and 1988, were investigated from 1975 through 2000.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Mortality rates for COPD and asthma in patients from Yokkaichi-city were significantly higher than in the whole population of Mie Prefecture. For all ages (except for males between 80 and 84 years in 1985), the life expectancy of both males and females were significantly reduced in patients from Yokkaichi-city as compared with the whole population of Mie Prefecture. The potential gains in life expectancy excluding the mortality for respiratory diseases including COPD and asthma were larger for all ages in patients from Yokkaichi-city.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>Mortality and life expectancy were adversely affected in patients from Yokkaichi-city, despite the fact that the air pollution problem has been already solved.</p

    Preliminary Results of NGS Gene Panel Test Using NSCLC Sputum Cytology and Therapeutic Effect Using Corresponding Molecular-Targeted Drugs

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    As more molecular-targeted drugs for advanced non-small cell lung cancer are brought to market, batch tests for the identification of gene mutations are needed at initial diagnosis. However, since current gene panel tests require a sufficient amount of tissue sample, there are many instances where panel tests cannot be performed. Therefore, we have developed a highly sensitive next generation sequencing (NGS) panel test to facilitate cytological specimens. Herein, we describe three cases positive for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) exon 19 deletion, MET exon 14 skipping, and KRAS G12A using NGS analysis from sputum. In each case, genetic information was consistent with companion diagnostic analysis obtained from tissue samples collected under bronchoscopy. In cases of EGFR and MET mutations, the corresponding tyrosine kinase inhibitors were highly effective. This is the first report to demonstrate that a novel panel test could detect gene mutations in sputum samples in clinical practice and compare the gene allele ratio with the sample directly collected from the lesion

    The Effect of Motion Artifacts on Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) Data and Proposal of a Video-NIRS System

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    Aims: The aims of this study were (1) to investigate the influence of physical movement on near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) data, (2) to establish a video-NIRS system which simultaneously records NIRS data and the subject’s movement, and (3) to measure the oxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) concentration change (Δoxy-Hb) during a word fluency (WF) task. Experiment 1: In 5 healthy volunteers, we measured the oxy-Hb and deoxygenated hemoglobin (deoxy-Hb) concentrations during 11 kinds of facial, head, and extremity movements. The probes were set in the bilateral frontal regions. The deoxy-Hb concentration was increased in 85% of the measurements. Experiment 2: Using a pillow on the backrest of the chair, we established the video-NIRS system with data acquisition and video capture software. One hundred and seventy-six elderly people performed the WF task. The deoxy-Hb concentration was decreased in 167 subjects (95%). Experiment 3: Using the video-NIRS system, we measured the Δoxy-Hb, and compared it with the results of the WF task. Δoxy-Hb was significantly correlated with the number of words. Conclusion: Like the blood oxygen level-dependent imaging effect in functional MRI, the deoxy-Hb concentration will decrease if the data correctly reflect the change in neural activity. The video-NIRS system might be useful to collect NIRS data by recording the waveforms and the subject’s appearance simultaneously

    Physical Exercise With Music Maintains Activities of Daily Living in Patients With Dementia: Mihama-kiho Project Part 2

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    Background: Recent studies suggest that combined non-pharmacological interventions are more beneficial than single interventions for primary and secondary prevention of dementia. We previously reported enhanced effects of physical exercise with music (ExM) on cognitive function in normal elderly people compared to exercise alone. Objective: To identify if ExM improves cognitive function and activities of daily livings (ADLs) in dementia patients over cognitive stimulation (CS). Methods: We enrolled 85 patients with mild to moderate dementia. Forty-three subjects performed ExM developed by the Yamaha Music Foundation, and 42 subjects performed cognitive stimulation using portable game consoles and drills involving easy calculations, mazes, and mistake-searching in pictures. Interventions were performed once a week for 40 minutes. Before and after the six-month intervention, patients were assessed using neuropsychological batteries, and ADLs were assessed by patients’ caregivers using the functional independence measure (FIM). Voxel-based specific regional analysis system for Alzheimer’s disease (VSRAD) was used to assess medial temporal lobe atrophy. Results: Twenty-three subjects dropped out during the intervention. Thirty-one patients from each group were analyzed. Post-intervention, both groups showed significantly improved visuospatial function. Significant benefits were observed in psychomotor speed or memory in the ExM or CS groups, respectively. FIM scores, reflecting ADLs, and VSRAD scores were significantly preserved in the ExM group, but significantly worsened in the CS group. Conclusions: ExM produced greater positive effects on cognitive function and ADLs in patients with mild to moderate dementia than CS, excluding memory. Optimal interventions for dementia will likely be achieved by combining ExMand CS. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved

    Music Therapy Using Singing Training Improves Psychomotor Speed in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease: A Neuropsychological and fMRI Study

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    Background/Aims: To investigate the effect of singing training on the cognitive function in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Methods: Ten AD patients (mean age 78.1 years) participated in music therapy using singing training once a week for 6 months (music therapy group). Each session was performed with professional musicians using karaoke and a unique voice training method (the YUBA Method). Before and after the intervention period, each patient was assessed by neuropsychological batteries, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed while the patients sang familiar songs with a karaoke device. As the control group, another 10 AD patients were recruited (mean age 77.0 years), and neuropsychological assessments were performed twice with an interval of 6 months. Results: In the music therapy group, the time for completion of the Japanese Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices was significantly reduced (p = 0.026), and the results obtained from interviewing the patients' caregivers revealed a significant decrease in the Neuropsychiatric Inventory score (p = 0.042) and a prolongation of the patients' sleep time (p = 0.039). The fMRI study revealed increased activity in the right angular gyrus and the left lingual gyrus in the before-minus-after subtraction analysis of the music therapy intervention. Conclusion: Music therapy intervention using singing training may be useful for dementia patients by improving the neural efficacy of cognitive processing

    Improved Necker Cube Drawing-Based Assessment Battery for Constructional Apraxia: The Mie Constructional Apraxia Scale (MCAS)

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    Background/Aims: Constructional apraxia (CA) is usually diagnosed by having patients draw figures; however, the reported assessments only evaluate the drawn figure. We designed a new assessment battery for CA (the Mie Constructional Apraxia Scale, MCAS) which includes both the shape and drawing process, and investigated its utility against other assessment methods. Methods: We designed the MCAS, and evaluated inter- and intrarater reliability. We also investigated the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values in dementia patients, and compared MCAS assessment with other reported batteries in the same subjects. Results: Moderate interrater reliability was shown for speech therapists with limited experience. Moderate to substantial intrarater reliability was shown several weeks after initial assessment. When cutoff scores and times were set at 2/3 points and 39/40 s, sensitivity and specificity were 77.1 and 70.4%, respectively, with positive and negative predictive values of 80.0 and 66.7%, respectively. Dementia patients had significantly worse scores and times for Necker cube drawing than an elderly control group on the MCAS, and on other assessments. Conclusions: We conclude that the MCAS, which includes both the assessment of the drawn Necker cube shape and the drawing process, is useful for detecting even mild CA
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