60 research outputs found


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    The effect of age, gender, and repeated measures on intraoral air pressure (P0) was examined. Sixty adults comprised of ten males and ten females in each of three age groups (i.e., 20 to 39, 40 to 59, and 60 to 83 years) participated. P0 was assessed during voiceless stop plosive /p/ productions in repeated vowel/consonant syllables. The three medial plosives of a seven syllable train were averaged to comprise a token. Five tokens were obtained and averaged for each of three trials. Thus each participant contributed 105 syllables and a subsequent three P0s for analyses. There was no statistically significant difference in P0 as a function of age or gender (p>.05). These findings support the conception that P0 remains stable throughout adulthood and is not dependent on gender. Differences in repeated measures of P0 attained statistical significance (p = .03), however the mean differences between trials (.23 cm H20) were negligible and deemed to be clinically insignificant. Thus, across a short sampling session, P0 is a relatively stable measurement and does not change as a function of age or gender

    Breast cancer risk variants at 6q25 display different phenotype associations and regulate ESR1, RMND1 and CCDC170.

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    We analyzed 3,872 common genetic variants across the ESR1 locus (encoding estrogen receptor α) in 118,816 subjects from three international consortia. We found evidence for at least five independent causal variants, each associated with different phenotype sets, including estrogen receptor (ER(+) or ER(-)) and human ERBB2 (HER2(+) or HER2(-)) tumor subtypes, mammographic density and tumor grade. The best candidate causal variants for ER(-) tumors lie in four separate enhancer elements, and their risk alleles reduce expression of ESR1, RMND1 and CCDC170, whereas the risk alleles of the strongest candidates for the remaining independent causal variant disrupt a silencer element and putatively increase ESR1 and RMND1 expression.This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from Nature Publishing Group via http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng.352

    Perceptions of age and gender on victims of financial exploitation

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    A report by the Center for Victim Research shows that younger adults are more often victims of general and identity fraud (Irvin-Erickson & Ricks, 2019, p. 9); however, research conducted on financial exploitation focuses heavily on older adults. However, a recent study by Gunderson and colleagues (2021) found that older and younger adults are highly susceptible to financial exploitation. The purpose of the current study is to determine if perceptions of vulnerability to financial exploitation vary by the age of the victim. A sample of undergraduate participants will be recruited from the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga through an online recruitment system called SONA. Participants will be randomly assigned to one of four vignettes where gender and age have been manipulated and dichotomized: (1) 67-year-old older man victim, (2) 67-year-old older woman victim, (3) 20-year-old young man victim, and (4) 20-year-old young woman victim. Participants will be asked to respond to questions regarding the following: (1) perceptions of vulnerability and susceptibility, (2) perceptions of blame and accountability, and (3) perceptions of empathy and support. The hypothesis is that age and gender will interact such that older women will be perceived as more vulnerable and deserving of empathy and support. The results of this study will begin to lay the groundwork needed to understand how to decrease stigma to increase reporting, develop and market educational training to reduce financial exploitation that is targeted to adults across the lifespan, and improve training for legal and social service professionals

    The effect of diaphragm contraction on upper airway collapsibility

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    Increasing lung volume increases upper airway patency and decreases airway resistance and collapsibility. The role of diaphragm contraction in producing these changes remains unclear. This study was undertaken to determine the effect of selective diaphragm contraction, induced by phrenic nerve stimulation, on upper airway collapsibility and the extent to which any observed change was attributable to lung volumerelated changes in pressure gradients or to diaphragm descent-related mediastinal traction. Continuous bilateral transcutaneous cervical phrenic nerve stimulation (30 Hz) was applied to nine supine, anesthetized human subjects during transient decreases in airway pressure to levels sufficient to produce flow limitation when unstimulated. Stimulation was applied at two intensities (low and high) and its effects on lung volume and airflow quantified relative to unstimulated conditions. Lung volume increased by 386 ± 269 ml (means ± SD) and 761 ± 556 ml during low and high stimulation, respectively (P < 0.05 for the difference between these values), which was associated with peak inspiratory flow increases of 69 ± 57 and 137 ± 108 ml/s, respectively (P < 0.05 for the difference). Stimulation-induced change in lung volume correlated with change in peak flow (r = 0.65, P < 0.01). Diaphragm descent-related outward displacement of the abdominal wall produced no change in airflow unless accompanied by lung volume change. We conclude that phrenic nerve stimulationinduced diaphragm contraction increases lung volume and reduces airway collapsibility in a dose-dependent manner. The effect appears primarily mediated by changes in lung volume rather than mediastinal traction from diaphragm descent. The study provides a rationale for use of continuous phrenic stimulation to treat obstructive sleep apnea. Copyright © 2013 the American Physiological Society

    Bilateral hypoglossal nerve stimulation for treatment of adult obstructive sleep apnoea

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    Background and aim Hypoglossal nerve stimulation (HNS) decreases obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) severity via genioglossus muscle activation and decreased upper airway collapsibility. This study assessed the safety and effectiveness at 6 months post-implantation of a novel device delivering bilateral HNS via a small implanted electrode activated by a unit worn externally, to treat OSA: the Genio™ system. Methods This prospective, open-label, non-randomised, single-arm treatment study was conducted at eight centres in three countries (Australia, France and the UK). Primary outcomes were incidence of device-related serious adverse events and change in the apnoea–hypopnoea index (AHI). The secondary outcome was the change in the 4% oxygen desaturation index (ODI). Additional outcomes included measures of sleepiness, quality of life, snoring and device use. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT03048604. Results 22 out of 27 implanted participants (63% male, aged 55.9±12.0 years, body mass index (BMI) 27.4±3.0 kg·m−2) completed the protocol. At 6 months BMI was unchanged (p=0.85); AHI decreased from 23.7±12.2 to 12.9±10.1 events·h−1, a mean change of 10.8 events·h−1 (p\u3c0.001); and ODI decreased from 19.1±11.2 to 9.8±6.9 events·h−1, a mean change of 9.3 events·h−1 (p\u3c0.001). Daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale; p=0.01) and sleep-related quality of life (Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire-10; p=0.02) both improved significantly. The number of bed partners reporting loud, very intense snoring, or leaving the bedroom due to participant snoring decreased from 96% to 35%. 91% of participants reported device use \u3e5 days per week, and 77% reported use for \u3e5 h per night. No device-related serious adverse events occurred during the 6-month post-implantation period. Conclusions Bilateral HNS using the Genio™ system reduces OSA severity and improves quality of life without device-related complications. The results are comparable with previously published HNS systems despite minimal implanted components and a simple stimulation algorithm
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