118,108 research outputs found


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    Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui dan menganalisis akibat hukumnya dalam hal terjadi wanprestasi dari pihak penjual maupun pihak pembeli, serta penyelesaian hukumnya dalam hal terjadi overmacht pada saat perjanjian itu belum berakhir. Metodologi penelitian yang dipergunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah socio Legal, artinya permasalahan dianalisis berdasarkan ketentuan hukum/perundang-undangan yang berlaku dan kaitannya dengan praktek pelaksanaan di dalam masyarakat. Penelitian ini bersifat deskriptif analitis eksploratoris. Analisis data yang dilakukan dalam penelitian ini adalah deskriptif kualitatif. Hasil dari penelitian ini adalah (1) Salah satu bentuk dari wanprestasi yang dilakukan oleh pihak penjual adalah dengan adanya pencantuman klausula baku/klausula eksonerasi yang bertujuan untuk mengalihkan tanggung jawab penjual kepada pihak pembeli. Hal ini dilakukan oleh penjual agar supaya kewajiban untuk menanggung terhadap kualitas barang yang dijual menjadi beralih kepada pembeli, sehingga ketika barang yang dibeli tersebut tidak dapat digunakan oleh pembeli, maka penjual tidak mau bertanggung jawab karena sudah mencantumkan klausula eksonerasi tersebut. Jadi dengan demikian pencantuman klausula eksonerasi pada nota penjualan oleh pihak penjual merupakan satu cara bagi penjual untuk menghindari tanggung jawab karena adanya wanprestasi yaitu barang yang dibeli oleh pembeli tidak dapat digunakan. Di samping itu pencantuman klausula eksonerasi tersebut dimaksudkan merupakan jaminan dari pihak pemilik toko bahwa barang yang dibeli oleh konsumen adalah barang yang benar-benar bagus kualitasnya dan sudah dicoba dapat berfungsi sebagaimana mestinya, serta (2) Proses beracara dalam penyelesaian sengketa konsumen itu diatur dalam Undang-Undang RI Nomor 8 Tahun 1999 tentang Perlindungan Konsumen (UUPK). Karena UUPK ini hanya mengatur beberapa pasal ketentuan beracara maka secara umum peraturan hukum acara seperti dalam Herziene Indonesische Reglement (HIR) dan Kitab Undang- Undang Hukum Acara Pidana tetap berlaku. Menurut UUPK, penyelesaian sengketa konsumen ternyata memiliki kekhasan. Sejak semula, para pihak yang berselisih, khususnya dari pihak konsumen, dimungkinkan menyelesaikan sengketa itu mengikuti beberapa lingkungan peradilan, misalnya peradilan umum, atau konsumen memilih jalan penyelesaian di luar pengadilan. Dalam kaitan ini juga disinggung sekilas tentang kemungkinan penyelesaian dalam lingkungan peradilan tata usaha negara dan peran komisi Ombudsman

    On Measuring the Complexity of Urban Living

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    This paper explores the concept of city ranking as a way to measure dynamics and complexities of urban life. These rankings have various dimensions and uses. Both the context in which these rankings are done, and their nature has changed considerably overtime. These rankings are also afflicted with many methodological and measurement problems. A review of major city rankings and related literature is carried out to suggest a framework for measuring Pakistani cities.Quality of Life, Cities, Urbanization

    Forest Management

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    This study analyses the institutional set-up of forest management in Pakistan, focusing on the North West Frontier Province, which houses 40 percent of the total forestlands. These areas have faced significant deforestation in the past. It is feared that if nothing is done to check this process, these forests will soon disappear. The study argues for the Property Rights School of thought that the roots of environmental problems are to be traced to inadequate and ill-defined property institutions. The study develops a normative criterion, describing the conditions that are essential for optimal utilisation and conservation of a resource, to be used in assessing the present situation. The analysis indicates that there are problems in the ownership structure, in the enforcement of property rules, as well as in the management system. It is concluded that the present institutional set-up is inappropriate to achieve the objective of forest conservation, and changes in this set-up are suggested. The study puts forward ‘collective management’ as an alternative institutional set-up.Forests, Institutions, Property Rights

    Comments on Masudul Alam Chuodhury: 'Islamic critique and alternative to financial engineering issues'

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    This review questions Chuodhury's use of topological spaces for criticising the risk-return issues in mainstream financial literature. It highlights the failure of the work in producing an understandable Islamic alternate framework for the purpose.Financial engineering, Risk return analysis; scarcity of resources

    A Parsing Scheme for Finding the Design Pattern and Reducing the Development Cost of Reusable Object Oriented Software

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    Because of the importance of object oriented methodologies, the research in developing new measure for object oriented system development is getting increased focus. The most of the metrics need to find the interactions between the objects and modules for developing necessary metric and an influential software measure that is attracting the software developers, designers and researchers. In this paper a new interactions are defined for object oriented system. Using these interactions, a parser is developed to analyze the existing architecture of the software. Within the design model, it is necessary for design classes to collaborate with one another. However, collaboration should be kept to an acceptable minimum i.e. better designing practice will introduce low coupling. If a design model is highly coupled, the system is difficult to implement, to test and to maintain overtime. In case of enhancing software, we need to introduce or remove module and in that case coupling is the most important factor to be considered because unnecessary coupling may make the system unstable and may cause reduction in the system's performance. So coupling is thought to be a desirable goal in software construction, leading to better values for external software qualities such as maintainability, reusability and so on. To test this hypothesis, a good measure of class coupling is needed. In this paper, based on the developed tool called Design Analyzer we propose a methodology to reuse an existing system with the objective of enhancing an existing Object oriented system keeping the coupling as low as possible.Comment: 15 page

    The Reliability of Memory: An Argument from the Armchair

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    The “problem of memory” in epistemology is concerned with whether and how we could have knowledge, or at least justification, for trusting our apparent memories. I defend an inductive solution—more precisely, an abductive solution—to the problem. A natural worry is that any such solution would be circular, for it would have to depend on memory. I argue that belief in the reliability of memory can be justified from the armchair, without relying on memory. The justification is, roughly, that my having the sort of experience that my apparent memory should lead me to expect is best explained by the hypothesis that my memories are reliable. My solution is inspired by Harrod’s (1942) inductive solution. Coburn (1960) argued that Harrod’s solution contains a fatal flaw. I show that my solution is not vulnerable to Coburn’s objection, and respond to a number of other, recent and likely objections

    The Correlation between Economic Status and Medical Circumstances

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    The objective of this study is to examine the relation between economic and medical circumstances of people and thereby to give suggestions and remarks which can be incorporated into the researches in order to increase the benefits and efficiencies of research outcomes as well as their implementation. Genetically modified foods, arsenic contaminated water, hormonal fruit and vegetables, genetically modified organisms, biological and chemical weapons, radioactive equipment, unsanitary living habitations, malnutrition, mental health complications and burnout are the major source of health problems of a large part of society. All these challenges of modern society are directly linked to the economic status of the people. Hence it is significant to take the health circumstances of people in terms of their economic situation in the foreground. Most importantly, scientists must always keep the externalities of their research outcomes into consideration. For that reason, this project is an attempt to design a common strategy between physicians and economists.