34 research outputs found

    DZIAŁALNOŚĆ MUZEUM TECHNICZNO-PRZEMYSŁOWEGO W KRAKOWIE I JEGO LIKWIDACJA W LATACH 1949–1950

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    Instytucja, będąca przedmiotem niniejszego opracowania, powstała w 1868 roku z inicjatywy dr. Adriana Baranieckiego w celu podniesienia rodzimego rzemiosła na wysoki poziom i położenie podwalin pod dalszy rozwój przemysłu i techniki. Początkowo nosiła ona nazwę Miejskie Muzeum Techniczno-Przemysłowe w Krakowie, następnie – od 1920 roku – Miejskie Muzeum Przemysłowe im. dr. Adriana Baranieckiego w Krakowie, a od roku 1934 – Muzeum Przemysłu Artystycznego w Krakowie

    Działalność Muzeum Techniczno-Przemysłowego w Krakowie i jego likwidacja w latach 1949-1950

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    Instytucja, będąca przedmiotem niniejszego opracowania, powstała w 1868 roku z inicjatywy dr. Adriana Baranieckiego w celu podniesienia rodzimego rzemiosła na wysoki poziom i położenie podwalin pod dalszy rozwój przemysłu i techniki. Początkowo nosiła ona nazwę Miejskie Muzeum Techniczno-Przemysłowe w Krakowie, następnie - od 1920 roku - Miejskie Muzeum Przemysłowe im. dr. Adriana Baranieckiego w Krakowie, a od roku 1934 - Muzeum Przemysłu Artystycznego w Krakowie

    Large probe arrays for measuring mean and time dependent local oil volume fraction and local oil velocity component distributions in inclined oil-in-water flows

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    Arrays of dual-sensor and four-sensor needle conductance probes have been used to measure the mean and time dependent local properties of upward inclined, bubbly oil-in-water flows (also known as dispersed oil-in-water flows) in a 153mm diameter pipe. The flow properties that were measured were (i) the local in-situ oil volume fraction ; (ii) the local oil velocity in the axial direction of the pipe (the direction); and (iii) the local oil velocity in the direction from the lower side of the inclined pipe to its upper side (the direction). Oil velocities in the direction (orthogonal to the and directions) were found to be negligible. For all of the flow conditions investigated it was found that the mean value of varied from a maximum value at the upper side of the inclined pipe to a minimum value at the lower side, and that the rate of decrease of this mean value of with distance in the direction became greater as the pipe inclination angle from the vertical was increased. It was also found that the mean value of was greatest at the upper side of the inclined pipe and decreased towards the lower side of the inclined pipe, the rate of decrease with distance in the direction again becoming greater as was increased. For , a water volumetric flow rate , an oil volumetric flow rate and using a sampling period over a total time interval of , it was found that at the upper side of the inclined pipe the standard deviation in was 31.6% of the mean value of . Furthermore for , , and it was found that the standard deviation in the cross-pipe oil velocity component was approximately equal to the standard deviation in the axial velocity component . These large temporal variations in the local flow properties have been attributed to the presence of large scale Kelvin-Helmholtz waves which intermittently appear in the flow. It is believed that the techniques outlined in this paper for measuring the standard deviation of local flow properties as a function of the sampling period will be of considerable value in validating mathematical models of time dependent oil-water flows. It should be noted that the principal focus of this paper is on the measurement techniques that were used and the methods of data analysis rather than the presentation of exhaustive experimental results at numerous different flow conditions

    Expressions of Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMP-2, MMP-7, and MMP-9) and Their Inhibitors (TIMP-1, TIMP-2) in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

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    Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) belong to a group of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). The aim of our study was to evaluate the expression of MMP-2, MMP-7, MMP-9, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 in ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. The study group comprised 34 patients with UC and 10 patients with CD. Evaluation of MMP-2, MMP-7, MMP-9, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 expression in tissue samples was performed using immunohistochemistry. The overexpression of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 was dominant in both the glandular epithelium and inflammatory infiltration in UC patients. In contrast, in CD subjects the positive expression of MMP-2 and TIMP-1 was in glandular tubes while mainly MMP-7 and TIMP-2 expression was in inflammatory infiltration. Metalloproteinases’ expression was associated with the presence of erosions, architectural tissue changes, and inflammatory infiltration in the lamina propria of UC patients. The expression of metalloproteinase inhibitors correlated with the presence of eosinophils and neutrophils in UC and granulomas in CD patients. Our studies indicate that the overexpression of metalloproteinases and weaker expression of their inhibitors may determine the development of IBD. It appears that MMP-2, MMP-7, and MMP-9 may be a potential therapeutic target and the use of their inhibitors may significantly reduce UC progression

    Two-Phase Liquid–Liquid Flow in the Aspect of Reduction of Pumping Power of Hydrophobic Substances with High Viscosity

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    The paper reports the results of a study into a method of estimating the level of power/energy reduction needed for pumping highly viscous hydrophobic liquids. The effect of reducing the flow resistance resulting from feeding an adequate volume of water into the flow tube is considered. The polar parameters of water selected for analysis are different than oil. Experimental studies were not carried out in this regard, since the commonly accessible equation expressing the resistance of two-phase liquid–liquid flow was utilized to develop the method discussed in this study. On its basis, simulations were carried out to determine the conditions and level of reduction of the two-phase flow resistance in comparison to the single-phase flow resistance of a highly viscous oily liquid. The analysis of the results provided means for determination of such ranges of variations in the flow parameters of the two-phase liquid–liquid system, in which the total power of pumps applied to pump both liquids is smaller than the power of one pump feeding oil into the pipeline in the conditions of single-phase flow. Calculations were performed for selected constant mass flux densities of oil with various viscosities as well as for water. The proposed method can be applied in the procedure of optimization calculations for pipeline installations and their feed systems. The given example of its use was preceded by a description of the reasons and effects associated with the reduction of flow resistance in liquid–liquid systems and a detailed presentation of how to use the equation that forms the essence of the described calculation method. Attention was also paid to other phenomena accompanying two-phase liquid–liquid flows, i.e., interfacial slip, phase inversion, specific flow structures, and the viscosity of the unstable mixture of two liquids flowing in the pipe

    ADRIAN BARANIECKI – PREKURSOR POLSKIEGO MUZEALNICTWA PRZEMYSŁOWEGO

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    Adrian Baraniecki (1827–1891), a doctor, a social activist by profession; a museum professional by passion. During the January Uprising of 1863, he was a major figure in the patriotic movement in the Podolia Governorate. Threatened with arrest, he moved to Paris, and in 1864 reached England. Probably as a result of his fascination with industrial culture, Baraniecki began working on a concept of an industrial museum on Polish soil. This idea was closely linked with the Positivist programme of „organic work” and „grassroots work”. He concluded that the only way to rebuild society after the failure of the Uprising was to develop its manufacturing capacity (craft and industry) and education. In 1868 he came to Cracow and brought his assembled collection with him. The Technical and Industrial Museum in Cracow he set up was the first in Poland. It was established by a resolution of the City Council on 4 June 1868 under which the city received the collections he had offered. According to the museum’s name, its main statutory target was to develop industry with particular attention to technical and artistic crafts, i.e. reviving the craft and industrial circles in Cracow, and in a broader perspective within Galicia. Thanks to his numerous private contacts and the way he organised the acquisition of gifts from the society, the collection of the museum was soon enlarged. The museum consisted of two departments, industrial and ethnographic; it also had a workshop of plaster casts. Moreover, it organised many exhibitions and prepared many publications. Based on the collections he amassed, Braniecki initiated a broad and varied range of educational activities at his own cost. According to his concept, exhibiting was to be one among many means of achieving the goal he had set, namely the scientific, economic and artistic strengthening of the Polish nation. Braniecki’s establishment was not only a museum but also a school, a professional training centre, and a place for shaping and exchanging ideas. Baraniecki was a precursor of educating women at the higher level in Poland. He initiated Higher Courses for Women at the Technical and Industrial Museum, one of the most important cultural institutions in Cracow at the turn of the 20th century, which was very modern and useful for the public. The memory of his distinguished social activism remained in the awareness of Cracow’s inhabitants as long as the institution he had established operated. In 1950 the museum was nationalised and liquidated, and his collections were dispersed

    Influence of flow conditions on viscosity of dispersed liquid-liquid system

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    Przedstawiono wyniki badań lepkości ciekłych układów dyspersyjnych. Jako składniki badanych układów dwufazowych wykorzystano oleje maszynowe i wodę. Podczas badań mierzono opory przepływu układu ciecz-ciecz na określonym odcinku rury o znanej średnicy. Na podstawie otrzymanych wyników wykreślono rurowe krzywe płynięcia oraz wyznaczono lepkość płynącej substancji dwufazowej. Analiza wyników badań dała podstawę do oceny wpływu warunków przepływu na lepkość układu dyspersyjnego ciecz-ciecz. W pracy odniesiono się również do problematyki poprawnej metodyki pomiaru lepkości ciekłych układów dyspersyjnych.Measurements results related to viscosity of liquid dispersed systems were presented. Machine oils and water were used as components of two-phase systems. During the research, pressure drops of liquid-liquid system flow through a determined pipe section with known diameter were measured. Basing on obtained results flow curves were plotted and two-phase flowing substance viscosity was determined. The analysis of research values gave a base to assess the influence of flow conditions on dispersed liquid-liquid system viscosity. In this paper reference was made to correct the methodology of liquid dispersed systems viscosity measurement issues

    Influence of rheological properties of solid phase on suspension viscosity

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    Przedstawiono wyniki badań dotyczących oceny właściwości reologicznych zawiesin tworzonych z udziałem cieczy niutonowskich i nieniutonowskich. Jako fazę ciekłą wykorzystano olej maszynowy i wodne roztwory polimeru. Fazę stałą stanowił węgiel, zendra oraz łupiny orzechów ziemnych. Właściwości reologiczne zawiesin ustalano w reometrze o cylindrach współosiowych. Otrzymane wyniki opisano stosownymi modelami reologicznymi. Analiza postaci tych modeli oraz ich wzajemne porównanie dały podstawę do jakościowej i ilościowej oceny wpływu właściwości fazy ciekłej na lepkość zawiesin.This paper reports the experimental results regarding the assessment of rheological properties of suspensions formed from Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids. Machine oil and various water solutions of polymer were used as liquid phase. The solid phase was coal, scale and earthnut shells. The rheological properties of suspensions were determined in a measurement system containing two coaxial cylinders. The results were described using rheological models. Analysis of these models and their comparison provided a basis for assessing viscosity of suspensions

    Rising velocity of dispersed phase in oil - water two-phase upflow

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    Praca dotyczy zjawiska poślizgu faz, a szczególnie prędkości dry fu kropel oleju w strumieniu wody płynącym ku górze. Wskazano w niej na równania mogące znaleźć zastosowanie do opisu swobodnego ruchu kropel w cieczy. Na podstawie wyników własnych eksperymentów zweryfikowano celowość ich wykorzystania.A slip phenomenon of phases in liquid - liquid two-phase upflow is discussed in the paper. Especially the drift velocity of oil droplets in water stream is discussed. Equations describing the oil droplet terminal velocity in water are presented. The drift velocity values calculated from the equations were compared with those obtained experimentally

    Evaluation of solid concentration influence on power-law model parameters of polymer biosuspensions flow curves

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    Przedstawiono wyniki badań właściwości reologicznych zawiesin w cieczy pseudoplastycznej. Jako fazę ciekłą wykorzystano wodne roztwory polimeru, natomiast fazę stałą stanowiły zmielone łupiny orzechów włoskich. Pomiary wykonano w reometrze rotacyjnym o cylindrach współosiowych. Wyniki badań przedstawiono w postaci krzywych płynięcia, opisując je modelem potęgowym. Analiza wartości parametrów tych modeli dała podstawę do oceny wpływu udziału ciała stałego na charakter reologiczny całego układu dwufazowego oraz do próby uogólnienia modelu.The measurement results o f rheological properties o f suspensions in pseudoplastic liquid are presented. Water solutions of polymer were used as the liquid phase whereas ground walnut shells constituted the solid phase. The measurements were performed in a rotational rheometer with the coaxial cylinders. The results described by the power-law model are presented in a form o f flow curves. Analysis o f models’ parameters gave a basis to the evaluation o f solid volume fraction influence on the whole two-phase system rheological behaviour and also created the attempt to the model generalization
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