34,753 research outputs found

    At the Water’s Hedge: International Insider-Trading Enforcement After Morrison

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    From copy rooms to boardrooms, many Americans have succumbed to the siren song of insider trading. As U.S. companies have gone international, so too have corporate secrets ripe for exploitation. With the growth of overseas derivatives based on U.S. stock, foreigners are able to engage in insider trading to a similar extent as Americans. But in Morrison v. National Australia Bank, the Supreme Court limited the reach of the statutory insider-trading prohibition to transactions taking place in U.S. territory or transactions in securities listed on U.S. exchanges. Neither condition applies to overseas insider trading using derivatives. However, courts have reasoned that when the trader’s broker hedges by buying stock on a U.S. exchange, that transaction can be attributed to the trader, thus bringing the scheme within Morrison. This hedging theory depends on the acts of third parties—the brokers—to create insider-trading liability, thus giving arbitrary windfalls to blameworthy traders and creating both evidentiary and legal hurdles for U.S. enforcement. Because Morrison has backed courts into this unworkable corner, it should not govern in insider-trading cases. There is a fix: the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act abrogated Morrison for enforcement actions, albeit imperfectly. By abandoning the theory in favor of Dodd-Frank’s pragmatic standard, courts can more nimbly and forcefully protect U.S. markets from foreign fraud

    Determination of efficiencies, loss mechanisms, and performance degradation factors in chopper controlled dc vehical motors. Section 2: The time dependent finite element modeling of the electromagnetic field in electrical machines: Methods and applications

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    The time dependent solution of the magnetic field is introduced as a method for accounting for the variation, in time, of the machine parameters in predicting and analyzing the performance of the electrical machines. The method of time dependent finite element was used in combination with an also time dependent construction of a grid for the air gap region. The Maxwell stress tensor was used to calculate the airgap torque from the magnetic vector potential distribution. Incremental inductances were defined and calculated as functions of time, depending on eddy currents and saturation. The currents in all the machine circuits were calculated in the time domain based on these inductances, which were continuously updated. The method was applied to a chopper controlled DC series motor used for electric vehicle drive, and to a salient pole sychronous motor with damper bars. Simulation results were compared to experimentally obtained ones

    Infrared diode laser spectroscopy of the fundamental band of NF(a1Δ)

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    Thirty-one lines of the fundamental vibration–rotation band of the NF free radical in its a 1 state have been detected in absorption near 8.6 µm using a tunable infrared diode laser. Linewidths were Doppler limited and several transitions were accompanied by resolved hyperfine structure due to fluorine and nitrogen nuclear moments. Wave number calibration using accurately determined N2O lines yielded v0 = 1165.952±0.001 cm^−1 for the band center. Rotational and centrifugal distortion constants for both v = 0 and 1 states have also been determined

    Three-Body Capture of Irregular Satellites: Application to Jupiter

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    We investigate a new theory of the origin of the irregular satellites of the giant planets: capture of one member of a ~100-km binary asteroid after tidal disruption. The energy loss from disruption is sufficient for capture, but it cannot deliver the bodies directly to the observed orbits of the irregular satellites. Instead, the long-lived capture orbits subsequently evolve inward due to interactions with a tenuous circumplanetary gas disk. We focus on the capture by Jupiter, which, due to its large mass, provides the most stringent test of our model. We investigate the possible fates of disrupted bodies, the differences between prograde and retrograde captures, and the effects of Callisto on captured objects. We make an impulse approximation and discuss how it allows us to generalize capture results from equal-mass binaries to binaries with arbitrary mass ratios. We find that at Jupiter, binaries offer an increase of a factor of ~10 in the capture rate of 100-km objects as compared to single bodies, for objects separated by tens of radii that approach the planet on relatively low-energy trajectories. These bodies are at risk of collision with Callisto, but may be preserved by gas drag if their pericenters are raised quickly enough. We conclude that our mechanism is as capable of producing large irregular satellites as previous suggestions, and it avoids several problems faced by alternative models.Comment: 39 pages, 12 figures, 1 table, submitted to Icaru

    Diffusion algorithms and data reduction routine for onsite launch predictions for the transport of Titan 3 C exhaust effluents

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    The NASA/MSFC multilayer diffusion algorithms have been specialized for the prediction of the surface impact for the dispersive transport of the exhaust effluents from the launch of a Titan 3 vehicle. This specialization permits these transport predictions to be made at the launch range in real time so that the effluent monitoring teams can optimize their monitoring grids. Basically, the data reduction routine requires just the meteorology profiles for the thermodynamics and kinematics of the atmosphere as an input. These profiles are graphed along with the resulting exhaust cloud rise history, the center line concentrations and dosages, and the hydrogen chloride isopleths

    Field-guided proton acceleration at reconnecting X-points in flares

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    An explicitly energy-conserving full orbit code CUEBIT, developed originally to describe energetic particle effects in laboratory fusion experiments, has been applied to the problem of proton acceleration in solar flares. The model fields are obtained from solutions of the linearised MHD equations for reconnecting modes at an X-type neutral point, with the additional ingredient of a longitudinal magnetic field component. To accelerate protons to the highest observed energies on flare timescales, it is necessary to invoke anomalous resistivity in the MHD solution. It is shown that the addition of a longitudinal field component greatly increases the efficiency of ion acceleration, essentially because it greatly reduces the magnitude of drift motions away from the vicinity of the X-point, where the accelerating component of the electric field is largest. Using plasma parameters consistent with flare observations, we obtain proton distributions extending up to gamma-ray-emitting energies (>1MeV). In some cases the energy distributions exhibit a bump-on-tail in the MeV range. In general, the shape of the distribution is sensitive to the model parameters.Comment: 14 pages, 4 figures, accepted for publication in Solar Physic
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