8,810 research outputs found

    The early reionization with the primordial magnetic fields

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    The early reionization of the intergalactic medium, which is favored from the WMAP temperature-polarization cross-correlations, contests the validity of the standard scenario of structure formation in the cold dark matter cosmogony. It is difficult to achieve early enough star formation without rather extreme assumptions such as very high escape fraction of ionizing photons from proto-galaxies or a top-heavy initial mass function. Here we propose an alternative scenario that is additional fluctuations on small scales induced by primordial magnetic fields trigger the early structure formation. We found that ionizing photons from Population III stars formed in dark haloes can easily reionize the universe by z15z \simeq 15 if the strength of primordial magnetic fields is larger than 0.6×1090.6 \times 10^{-9}Gauss.Comment: 8 pages, 5 figures. accepted for publication in MNRA

    Patchy He II reionization and the physical state of the IGM

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    We present a Monte-Carlo model of He II reionization by QSOs and its effect on the thermal state of the clumpy intergalactic medium (IGM). The model assumes that patchy reionization develops as a result of the discrete distribution of QSOs. It includes various recipes for the propagation of the ionizing photons, and treats photo-heating self-consistently. The model provides the fraction of He III, the mean temperature in the IGM, and the He II mean optical depth -- all as a function of redshift. It also predicts the evolution of the local temperature versus density relation during reionization. Our findings are as follows: The fraction of He III increases gradually until it becomes close to unity at z2.83.0z\sim 2.8-3.0. The He II mean optical depth decreases from τ10\tau\sim 10 at z3.5z\geq 3.5 to τ0.5\tau\leq 0.5 at z2.5z\leq 2.5. The mean temperature rises gradually between z4z\sim 4 and z3z\sim 3 and declines slowly at lower redshifts. The model predicts a flattening of the temperature-density relation with significant increase in the scatter during reionization at z3z\sim 3. Towards the end of reionization the scatter is reduced and a tight relation is re-established. This scatter should be incorporated in the analysis of the Lyα\alpha forest at z3z\leq 3. Comparison with observational results of the optical depth and the mean temperature at moderate redshifts constrains several key physical parameters.Comment: 18 pages, 9 figures; Changed content. Accepted for publication in MNRA

    Scalability of spin FPGA: A Reconfigurable Architecture based on spin MOSFET

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    Scalability of Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) using spin MOSFET (spin FPGA) with magnetocurrent (MC) ratio in the range of 100% to 1000% is discussed for the first time. Area and speed of million-gate spin FPGA are numerically benchmarked with CMOS FPGA for 22nm, 32nm and 45nm technologies including 20% transistor size variation. We show that area is reduced and speed is increased in spin FPGA owing to the nonvolatile memory function of spin MOSFET.Comment: 3 pages, 7 figure

    {\delta}N formalism

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    Precise understanding of nonlinear evolution of cosmological perturbations during inflation is necessary for the correct interpretation of measurements of non-Gaussian correlations in the cosmic microwave background and the large-scale structure of the universe. The "{\delta}N formalism" is a popular and powerful technique for computing non-linear evolution of cosmological perturbations on large scales. In particular, it enables us to compute the curvature perturbation, {\zeta}, on large scales without actually solving perturbed field equations. However, people often wonder why this is the case. In order for this approach to be valid, the perturbed Hamiltonian constraint and matter-field equations on large scales must, with a suitable choice of coordinates, take on the same forms as the corresponding unperturbed equations. We find that this is possible when (1) the unperturbed metric is given by a homogeneous and isotropic Friedmann-Lema\^itre-Robertson-Walker metric; and (2) on large scales and with a suitable choice of coordinates, one can ignore the shift vector (g0i) as well as time-dependence of tensor perturbations to gij/a2(t) of the perturbed metric. While the first condition has to be assumed a priori, the second condition can be met when (3) the anisotropic stress becomes negligible on large scales. However, in order to explicitly show that the second condition follows from the third condition, one has to use gravitational field equations, and thus this statement may depend on the details of theory of gravitation. Finally, as the {\delta}N formalism uses only the Hamiltonian constraint and matter-field equations, it does not a priori respect the momentum constraint. We show that the violation of the momentum constraint only yields a decaying mode solution for {\zeta}, and the violation vanishes when the slow-roll conditions are satisfied.Comment: 10 page

    The Degrees of Freedom of Partial Least Squares Regression

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    The derivation of statistical properties for Partial Least Squares regression can be a challenging task. The reason is that the construction of latent components from the predictor variables also depends on the response variable. While this typically leads to good performance and interpretable models in practice, it makes the statistical analysis more involved. In this work, we study the intrinsic complexity of Partial Least Squares Regression. Our contribution is an unbiased estimate of its Degrees of Freedom. It is defined as the trace of the first derivative of the fitted values, seen as a function of the response. We establish two equivalent representations that rely on the close connection of Partial Least Squares to matrix decompositions and Krylov subspace techniques. We show that the Degrees of Freedom depend on the collinearity of the predictor variables: The lower the collinearity is, the higher the Degrees of Freedom are. In particular, they are typically higher than the naive approach that defines the Degrees of Freedom as the number of components. Further, we illustrate how the Degrees of Freedom approach can be used for the comparison of different regression methods. In the experimental section, we show that our Degrees of Freedom estimate in combination with information criteria is useful for model selection.Comment: to appear in the Journal of the American Statistical Associatio

    Systematic limits on sin^2{2theta_{13}} in neutrino oscillation experiments with multi-reactors

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    Sensitivities to sin^2{2theta_{13}} without statistical errors (``systematic limit'') are investigated in neutrino oscillation experiments with multiple reactors. Using an analytical approach, we show that the systematic limit on sin^2{2theta_{13}} is dominated by the uncorrelated systematic error sigma_u of the detector. Even in an experiment with multi-detectors and multi-reactors, it turns out that most of the systematic errors including the one due to the nature of multiple sources is canceled as in the case with a single reactor plus two detectors, if the near detectors are placed suitably. The case of the KASKA plan (7 reactors and 3 detectors) is investigated in detail, and it is explicitly shown that it does not suffer from the extra uncertainty due to multiple reactors.Comment: 26 pages, 10 eps-files, revtex

    Neutron Response Matrix for Unfolding NE-213 Scintillator Measurements in 6 < En < 34 MeV

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