8,653 research outputs found

    New intensity and visibility aspects of a double loop neutron interferometer

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    Various phase shifters and absorbers can be put into the arms of a double loop neutron interferometer. The mean intensity levels of the forward and diffracted beams behind an empty four plate interferometer of this type have been calculated. It is shown that the intensities in the forward and diffracted direction can be made equal using certain absorbers. In this case the interferometer can be regarded as a 50/50 beam splitter. Furthermore the visibilities of single and double loop interferometers are compared to each other by varying the transmission in the first loop using different absorbers. It can be shown that the visibility becomes exactly 1 using a phase shifter in the second loop. In this case the phase shifter in the second loop must be strongly correlated to the transmission coefficient of the absorber in the first loop. Using such a device homodyne-like measurements of very weak signals should become possible.Comment: 12 pages, 9 figures, accepted for publication in the Journal of Optics B - Quantum and Semiclassical Optic

    Non-cyclic Geometric Phase due to Spatial Evolution in a Neutron Interferometer

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    We present a split-beam neutron interferometric experiment to test the non-cyclic geometric phase tied to the spatial evolution of the system: the subjacent two-dimensional Hilbert space is spanned by the two possible paths in the interferometer and the evolution of the state is controlled by phase shifters and absorbers. A related experiment was reported previously by Hasegawa et al. [Phys. Rev. A 53, 2486 (1996)] to verify the cyclic spatial geometric phase. The interpretation of this experiment, namely to ascribe a geometric phase to this particular state evolution, has met severe criticism from Wagh [Phys. Rev. A 59, 1715 (1999)]. The extension to a non-cyclic evolution manifests the correctness of the interpretation of the previous experiment by means of an explicit calculation of the non-cyclic geometric phase in terms of paths on the Bloch-sphere.Comment: 4 pages, revtex

    Adaptive Filtering for Large Space Structures: A Closed-Form Solution

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    In a previous paper Schaechter proposes using an extended Kalman filter to estimate adaptively the (slowly varying) frequencies and damping ratios of a large space structure. The time varying gains for estimating the frequencies and damping ratios can be determined in closed form so it is not necessary to integrate the matrix Riccati equations. After certain approximations, the time varying adaptive gain can be written as the product of a constant matrix times a matrix derived from the components of the estimated state vector. This is an important savings of computer resources and allows the adaptive filter to be implemented with approximately the same effort as the nonadaptive filter. The success of this new approach for adaptive filtering was demonstrated using synthetic data from a two mode system

    Phase Dynamics of Two Entangled Qubits

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    We make a geometric study of the phases acquired by a general pure bipartite two level system after a cyclic unitary evolution. The geometric representation of the two particle Hilbert space makes use of Hopf fibrations. It allows for a simple description of the dynamics of the entangled state's phase during the whole evolution. The global phase after a cyclic evolution is always an entire multiple of ŌÄ\pi for all bipartite states, a result that does not depend on the degree of entanglement. There are three different types of phases combining themselves so as to result in the nŌÄn \pi global phase. They can be identified as dynamical, geometrical and topological. Each one of them can be easily identified using the presented geometric description. The interplay between them depends on the initial state and on its trajectory and the results obtained are shown to be in connection to those on mixed states phases.Comment: 9 figures, slightly different version from the accepted on

    Flow Equations for Uplifting Half-Flat to Spin(7) Manifolds

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    In this short supplement to [1], we discuss the uplift of half-flat six-folds to Spin(7) eight-folds by fibration of the former over a product of two intervals. We show that the same can be done in two ways - one, such that the required Spin(7) eight-fold is a double G_2 seven-fold fibration over an interval, the G_2 seven-fold itself being the half-flat six-fold fibered over the other interval, and second, by simply considering the fibration of the half-flat six-fold over a product of two intervals. The flow equations one gets are an obvious generalization of the Hitchin's flow equations (to obtain seven-folds of G_2 holonomy from half-flat six-folds [2]). We explicitly show the uplift of the Iwasawa using both methods, thereby proposing the form of the new Spin(7) metrics. We give a plausibility argument ruling out the uplift of the Iwasawa manifold to a Spin(7) eight fold at the "edge", using the second method. For Spin(7)Spin(7) eight-folds of the type X7√óS1X_7\times S^1, X7X_7 being a seven-fold of SU(3) structure, we motivate the possibility of including elliptic functions into the "shape deformation" functions of seven-folds of SU(3) structure of [1] via some connections between elliptic functions, the Heisenberg group, theta functions, the already known D7D7-brane metric [3] and hyper-K\"{a}hler metrics obtained in twistor spaces by deformations of Atiyah-Hitchin manifolds by a Legendre transform in [4].Comment: 12 pages, LaTeX; v3: (JMP) journal version which includes clarifying remarks related to connection between Spin(7)-folds and SU(3)structur

    Neutron wave packet tomography

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    A tomographic technique is introduced in order to determine the quantum state of the center of mass motion of neutrons. An experiment is proposed and numerically analyzed.Comment: 4 pages, 3 figure

    Minimal Uncertainty in Momentum: The Effects of IR Gravity on Quantum Mechanics

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    The effects of the IR aspects of gravity on quantum mechanics is investigated. At large distances where due to gravity the space-time is curved, there appears nonzero minimal uncertainty őĒp0\Delta p_{0} in the momentum of a quantum mechanical particle. We apply the minimal uncertainty momentum to some quantum mechanical interferometry examples and show that the phase shift depends on the area surrounded by the path of the test particle . We also put some limits on the related parameters. This prediction may be tested through future experiments. The assumption of minimal uncertainty in momentum can also explain the anomalous excess of the mass of the Cooper pair in a rotating thin superconductor ring.Comment: 8 pages, revised version accepted by PR

    On helium-dominated stellar evolution: the mysterious role of the O(He)-type stars

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    About a quarter of all post-asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars are hydrogen-deficient. Stellar evolutionary models explain the carbon-dominated H-deficient stars by a (very) late thermal pulse scenario where the hydrogen-rich envelope is mixed with the helium-rich intershell layer. Depending on the particular time at which the final flash occurs, the entire hydrogen envelope may be burned. In contrast, helium-dominated post-AGB stars and their evolution are yet not understood. A small group of very hot, helium-dominated stars is formed by O(He)-type stars. We performed a detailed spectral analysis of ultraviolet and optical spectra of four O(He) stars by means of state-of-the-art non-LTE model-atmosphere techniques. We determined effective temperatures, surface gravities, and the abundances of H, He, C, N, O, F, Ne, Si, P, S, Ar, and Fe. By deriving upper limits for the mass-loss rates of the O(He) stars, we found that they do not exhibit enhanced mass-loss. The comparison with evolutionary models shows that the status of the O(He) stars remains uncertain. Their abundances match predictions of a double helium white dwarf merger scenario, suggesting that they might be the progeny of the compact and of the luminous helium-rich sdO-type stars. The existence of planetary nebulae that do not show helium enrichment around every other O(He) star, precludes a merger origin for these stars. These stars must have formed in a different way, for instance via enhanced mass-loss during their post-AGB evolution or a merger within a common-envelope (CE) of a CO-WD and a red giant or AGB star. A helium-dominated stellar evolutionary sequence exists, that may be fed by different types of mergers or CE scenarios. It appears likely, that all these pass through the O(He) phase just before they become white dwarfs.Comment: 29 pages, 27 figures, accepted for publication in A&

    Theory of minimum effort control

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    Optimum control theory formulations for solving problems in optimum guidance for interplanetary manned space flight mission
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